Elevated homocysteine can be bad news: it is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, adverse neurological outcomes, and poor bone health. Can supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, both with and without B-vitamins, affect concentrations of homocysteine?
Entries filed under 'Bone health'
As summer approaches in the Northern Hemisphere, we look forward to spending more time outdoors. This is good because our skin can synthesize vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. With most people spending most of their days indoors, serum 25(OH)D concentrations are known to decrease through the fall and winter months. The most recent data (NHANES 2007-2014) finds 24% of Americans have insufficient vitamin D levels (<50 nmol/L).
Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) interact to regulate calcium metabolism, bone turnover and bone mineral density. PTH stimulates the conversion of 25(OH)D3 by the kidneys to the active form which increases the active absorption of calcium by the intestine. Treatments for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women target metabolic pathways involving parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion to stimulate bone formation and resorption.
It goes without saying that vitamin D levels, measured as 25(OH)D3 in blood, decline during winter months. Because vitamin D is essential to maintain strong bones and muscles, Galan and colleagues wanted to know the circulating 25(OH)D concentrations required in the fall to maintain vitamin D sufficiency in professional football players during winter. As expected, vitamin D status was affected by sun exposure (# of cloudy/rainy days, hours in the sunshine, UV index, and skin exposure) as well as skin color.
With Super Bowl 50 approaching, it is not surprising to see The Wall Street Journal article
A new vitamin D study is garnering headlines that might cause doubt about the value of older adults using a vitamin D supplement. The findings aren’t “at odds” with national recommendations. So what should I know?
Bischoff-Ferrari and colleagues report that fall risk reduction is greatest in those achieving 25(OH)D concentrations between 21-30 ng/mL (52.5-75 nmol/L). During the 12 month study, 121 of the 200 participants (61%) had a fall. The incidence of falls was 48% in the 24,000 IU D3 group, 67% in the 60,000 IU D3 group, and 66% in the 48,000 IU D2+D3 group.