The Physicians’ Health Study II (PHS II) tested the effects of low-dose multivitamin-mineral supplementation in 18,350 men who had volunteered for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving aspirin and/or beta-carotene beginning in 1982. Multivitamin-mineral use was associated with a 39% reduction in fatal heart attacks (myocardial infarction, MI).
Rautianinen and colleagues wanted to know if healthy physicians who were using multivitamins at baseline had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Men who said they were using multivitamins at baseline (1982) were more likely to smoke, to be physically active, and less likely to consume alcohol. Men who reported ≥20 y of multivitamin use at baseline had a lower risk of CVD events.