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TalkingNutrition

Providing perspectives on recent research into vitamins and nutritionals

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C’mere Sweetie: The Role of Low- and No-Calorie Sweeteners in Weight Loss

By Julia Bird

When non-nutritive sweeteners were first discovered, they seemed ideal. They provided foods with sweetness, but without the sugary calories. A boon for diabetics, people wanting to lose weight, and our teeth. These products have been used in a wide array of different foods and drinks, from diet soft drinks to breakfast cereals to confectionary to dairy products. Artificially sweetened foods are popular: around one in three consumers worldwide have recently purchased a low- or no-sugar product such as a beverage or yoghurt, according to a global survey on consumer behavior by DSM. And it seems that keeping the pounds off is the most important reason consumers buy products with a reduced sugar content. Half of purchases were made to help with weight loss or weight maintenance, and 40% due to concern about diabetes or other health problems. Additionally, 50% of consumers reported worries about the effect of excess sugar on their children’s weight, and three quarters on their own weight.

However, on the weight loss front, all is not simple in the world of nutrition. Some research has found that non-nutritive sweeteners are associated with weight gain, not loss. Bellisle and co-workers reported that users of low-sugar products were heavier than non-users. Gatenby and associates found that reducing the sugar content of the diet had no effect on weight loss in a randomized trial. Consumers of artificially sweetened beverages had a greater risk of weight gain, according to Fowler and colleagues. Yang provides a summary of other evidence linking non-caloric sweeteners to weight gain.

Swithers, Martin and Davidson review several mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners could actually contribute to obesity. One is that by uncoupling of the sweet taste from its caloric content, the body no longer learns to associate sweetness with having eaten, and loses the ability to regulate energy consumption. Bellisle suggests that frequent exposure to sweet tastes may increase liking for sweetness, such that consuming a calorie-reduced soft drink may increase overall consumption of sweet foods. These studies suggest that diet products – normally seen as useful weight loss tools – may actually hamper efforts to cut down on calories.

These controversial results contrast with the results of other researchers. Renwick and Molinary found the mechanistic evidence for a link between obesity and non-nutritive sweeteners to be patchy at best, and not supported by trials in humans. The meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Miller and Perez reports that substituting regular soft drinks with lower or non-caloric alternatives is effective and useful at producing modest weight loss. Bellisle also found that high-intensity, low-energy sweeteners facilitates weight loss by reducing amounts of foods containing sugar that are consumed as part of the diet. The weight of evidence appears to lie on the side of low and no-sugar products being able to support weight loss. As food producers are encouraged to reduce the calorie content of the foods that they provide, sweeteners have their place in helping consumers enjoy sweet-tasting products without the calories.

 

Main citation:

DSM Consumer Insights Report. Understanding consumer preference for low-calorie and low-sugar products. Published June 29, 2015. http://www.dsm.com/content/dam/dsm/foodandbeverages/ en_US/documents/dsm_global_insights_sugar_reduction_paper_1.pdf 

Supporting citations:

Bellisle F. Intense Sweeteners, Appetite for the Sweet Taste, and Relationship to Weight Management. Curr Obes Rep. 2015;4(1):106-110. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26005598

Bellisle F, Altenburg de Assis MA, Fieux B, Preziosi P, Galan P, Guy-Grand B, Hercberg S. Use of 'light' foods and drinks in French adults: biological, anthropometric and nutritional correlates. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001 Jun;14(3):191-206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11424511/

Burke MV, Small DM. Physiological mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners may impact body weight and metabolism. Physiol Behav. 2015 Jun 3. pii: S0031-9384(15)00330-3. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.036. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048305

Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Aug;16(8):1894-900. doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.284. Epub 2008 Jun 5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18535548/

Gatenby SJ, Aaron JI, Jack VA, Mela DJ. Extended use of foods modified in fat and sugar content: nutritional implications in a free-living female population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Jun;65(6):1867-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9174485

Miller PE, Perez V. Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep;100(3):765-77. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.082826. Epub 2014 Jun 18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24944060  

Renwick AG, Molinary SV. Sweet-taste receptors, low-energy sweeteners, glucose absorption and insulin release. Br J Nutr. 2010 Nov;104(10):1415-20. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510002540. Epub 2010 Jul 12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20619074

Swithers SE, Martin AA, Davidson TL. High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance. Physiol Behav. 2010 Apr 26;100(1):55-62. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.12.021. Epub 2010 Jan 6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2855968/

Vasanti S Malik, Matthias B Schulze, and Frank B Hu. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug; 84(2): 274–288. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210834/

Qing Yang. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings. Neuroscience 2010. Yale J Biol Med. 2010 Jun; 83(2): 101–108. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892765/


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