This site uses cookies to store information on your computer. Learn more x

TalkingNutrition

Providing perspectives on recent research into vitamins and nutritionals

482325282

At the heart of the matter: most comprehensive quantitative analysis of the effect of EPA and DHA on coronary heart disease

By Keri Marshall MS, ND

According to the World Health Organization, by 2030 almost 23.6 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) - mainly from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, which are projected to remain the single leading causes of death. CHD is caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the walls of the coronary arteries. A new comprehensive meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the effect of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) on CHD. The research also aims to estimate the association between EPA and DHA intake and CHD risk.

The meta-analysis, funded by the Global Organization for EPA and DHA (GOED) and led by principal investigator Dominik D. Alexander from the Department of Epidemiology at the EpidStat Institute, aimed to examine the effects of different doses of EPA and DHA, as well as particular outcomes among higher-risk populations. To date, the study is the most comprehensive quantitative analysis of its kind within peer reviewed biomedical literature. The inclusion criteria were specific for CHD, unlike other meta-analyses that include a mixture of vascular and other coronary outcomes. This study used data from two types of studies:

1)    18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including 93,000 subjects

2)    16 prospective cohort studies, including 732,000 subjects.

Study populations included non-hospitalized adults, older than 18 years of age, with and without CHD and free of significant non-CHD related disease history.

The key findings of the meta-analysis include:

  • EPA and DHA supplementation produced a non-statistically significant 6% reduction of CHD.
  • EPA and DHA supplementation significantly reduced CHD risk by 16% among people with elevated serum triglycerides (>150 mg/dL), however not among those with triglyceride levels with normal limits. In addition, higher dose (> 1000 mg/d of EPA and DHA) had a stronger impact among those with elevated triglycerides compared to trials with a dose less than <1000 mg/d.
  • EPA and DHA supplementation significantly reduced CHD risk by 14% among people with higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (>130 mg/dL), but not for those with LDL cholesterol below 130 mg/dL.
  • The subsequent meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies found that EPA and DHA supplementation significantly reduced CHD risk by 18%.

The results of this meta-analysis adds to recent research, which confirms that adequate intake of EPA and DHA may reduce risk of CHD among people with elevated blood levels of triglycerides or LDL-cholesterol, both major risk factors that affect a significant portion of the general adult population globally.[1] The threat of elevated triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol to health has grown out of poor eating habits and dietary changes occurring in developed countries. Increased consumption of processed foods that contain trans fats (including partially hydrogenated oils), saturated fats and high fructose corn syrup, which the human body has been unable to fully adapt, are the primary drivers for increased triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels that contribute to heart disease and obesity.

A vast majority of the global population suffer from omega-3 deficiency. 83% of the global population live in countries where the average intake of EPA and DHA is below the minimum WHO guidelines.[2]  In the U.S. almost 96% of the population has an EPA and DHA level below what’s needed to provide cardiovascular protection.[3] To achieve cardiovascular benefits, it is necessary to receive an intake that is significantly above the level of the general recommendation of 250 mg of EPA and DHA per day. This new research supports the view that an intake of 1000 mg per day of EPA and DHA should be a goal to optimize cardiovascular health. Dietary supplements and fortified foods are the most convenient way to ensure that these levels can be reached. All of the studies analyzed except one provided EPA and DHA in combination in varying doses, and as a result more RCTs are needed to fully evaluate the relationship between the dose of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, for reducing CHD outcomes.

Recent studies clearly demonstrate that the public health and economic benefits of supplementation outweigh the costs. For example, one study has found that regular consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids supplements could save substantial healthcare costs in the European Union (EU).[4] Overall, 24% of the people aged 55+ in the EU are considered to be at risk of experiencing a hospital event attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The findings indicate that this risk could be reduced by 4.9% through daily consumption of 1,000 mg of EPA and DHA. This corresponds to more than 1.5 million fewer CVD-attributed hospital events from now up through 2020, generating cost savings of €12.9 billion per annum. For the US, a report from 2013 states that the savings potential in avoided CVD-attributed hospital events, from EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids supplements at preventive levels, would average nearly $500 USD million per year - a $3.90 billion USD cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020.[5]

With evidence to show that a diet low in EPA and DHA may be a contributor to heart disease, health authorities recommend intake of EPA and DHA for heart and overall health.[6] The findings of the new meta-analysis are a stimulus for more research in the field of EPA and DHA for heart health. They should encourage health authorities, as well as healthcare professionals, to dedicate more attention to the essential role, intake, and status of EPA and DHA in human health.

Coming soon: In February, the world will once again welcome heart health month. Keep an eye out for our blog.

  • For more information on the impact of EPA and DHA on human health, click here to download the whitepaper on benefits of optimal EPA and DHA intake.

 

References:

[1] Mozaffarian et al, Plasma phospholipid long-chain -3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: a cohort study, Ann Intern Med 2013, and Arnoldussen et al, Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity, J Nutr Biochem 2016

[2] Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition & Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE) www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g2272.long

Stark et al, Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults, J Pr in Lip Res 2016

[3] Murphy et al, Suboptimal Plasma Long Chain n-3 Concentrations are Common among Adults in the United States, NHANES 2003-2004, Nutrients 2015

[4] http://www.foodsupplementseurope.org/value-of-supplementation/

[5] http://www.crnusa.org/CRNfoundation/HCCS/chapters/03-CRNFSHCCS-CHD+Omega-3sandBVitamins.pdf

[6] http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/HealthyEating/HealthyDietGoals/Fish-and-Omega-3-Fatty-Acids_UCM_303248_Article.jsp#.WFukoPmLTIV

 


You are signed in as:
 
 
 
6comments
This corresponds to more than 1.5 million fewer CVD-attributed hospital events from now up through 2020, generating cost savings of €12.9 billion per annum. !! Hihi.
0 Replies » Reply
For the US, a report from 2013 states that the savings potential in avoided CVD-attributed hospital events, from EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids supplements at preventive levels, would average nearly $500 USD million per year - a $3.90 billion USD cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020.!!!
0 Replies » Reply
Getting regular checkups and analysis on the health conditions will definitely have some good effects. The tips shared here regarding the health care strategies will be so much useful in a busy lifestyle like this. Thanks for the information.
0 Replies » Reply
denisk45@gmail.com
Atlas December 10, 2017 7:11 AM
Nintendo is producing eshop codes generator http://hollypoppe.yooco.org/events/event.16847-free_play_games__nintendo_eshop_codes.html that can to play online and generate
and access free codes http://pixelhub.me/Atlas play in easiest way to get access these codes
usin online generator http://www.freeprnow.com/biz/eshopcodesfree are real codes that gives full gaming experinces to
free play games of nintendo http://localwall.net/advert/free-game-play-by-eshop-codes/ easy sikll and tricks to get eshop free nintendo
codes and enjoy free games http://www.cyprus.com/user/annie-foster.html?section=member_info some esay tips that can make your
full desire games https://www.pentaxuser.com/user/eshter89-364016 to play and this is online appication to
more and more codes for eshop can generate here https://www.viki.com/users/eshopcodes/about nintendo is oldest game now it can gives chance
to play free games from eshop https://olioboard.com/users/eshopcodes are generate using tool freenintendoeshopcodes.com that
provides to easy accessible methods to generate these codes for free
how to get nintendo codes you can see https://www.tribeofnoise.com/musiceshop to get unlimited codes to play nintendo games
also see to methods to generate these codes for free http://www.lacartes.com/business/Free-play-Nintendo-game/551290 play with nintendo using eshop codes generator
also nintendo gift card codes are very unique code http://getcosmetic.com/author/ehsop22/ that ptovides free games
nintendo is having awesome feature to having gives free eshop codes https://www.addpoll.com/ehsop nintendo gift card generator are to play games
for free and learn sill for generate codes for eshop how to generate codes people try to get
but not able to access https://speakerdeck.com/eshopcodes some online tips for getting eshop codes
provide free nintendo codes https://www.spreaker.com/user/eshopcodes here to enoy eshop codes for free
also get your desire games https://www.referralkey.com/freeeshopcodes to play your favorite games of nintendo
it is favorite for every nintendo player to free play games http://profile.ultimate-guitar.com/Eshopfreecodes/
nintendo generator for eshop http://foto-krasnodar.ru/forum/profile.php?id=2744140 is best things so far to get free codes.
https://www.patreon.com/eshopcodes/creators also like here to get eshop codes free for follwing some steps
http://www.cheaperseeker.com/u/eshopcodes get idea to generate free eshop codes
http://www.purevolume.com/listeners/freeeshopcodesgeneratorcom click here to get access to vip eshop codes generator
enjoy free nintendo eshop gift card codes free
https://www.behance.net/hexjason84db7 free games playing is awesome things when nothing to pay
https://www.bonanza.com/users/28297378/profile here online tricks to get nintendo games for free
https://seekingalpha.com/user/48799103/comments this codes can also apply to getting 3ds and wii u
https://www.intensedebate.com/people/instaeshop free eshop codes generator here is available to generate free eshop codes
http://www.wooloo.org/artists/39382 for mare detsails visit to get your eshop codes generator
http://perpustakaan.bappenas.go.id:8080/jforum/user/profile/200414.page this is very awesome online tool to get free nintendo codes
https://disqus.com/by/jasonhex/ also read some fine article to get access your nintendo eshop gift card codes
http://ttlink.com/ehsop here nintendo games is very popular and provide eshop codes online to play
http://webhiveteam.com/demo4_chameleon/profile/eshopgiftcardcodesfree get more here to generate free eshop codes using nintendo generator.
https://www.lonelyplanet.com/profile/Eshopcodes target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>https://www.lonelyplanet.com/profile/Eshopcodes eshop codes generator at freeeshopcodesgenerator.com for free
http://www.hellocoton.fr/mapage/eshofreecodes target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>http://www.hellocoton.fr/mapage/eshofreecodes here also generate and redeem free nintendo eshop gift card codes officially
http://www.workpost.com/eshopcodes5108_profile.aspx target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>http://www.workpost.com/eshopcodes5108_profile.aspx eshop codes is described to get access free games from nintendo to play easier game
http://ebusinesspages.com/Eshter.user target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>http://ebusinesspages.com/Eshter.user nintendo is amazing codes introduced to play games also its easily generated here eshop codes generator online.Each usrl is content a useful address http://www.ohmstudio.com/users/beatport to get eshop codes
there are many ways to enter http://teacherlingo.com/User/Friends.aspx?userid=53923 to generate these codes,
free nintendo codes can see https://digitalunite.com/users/santner here for many uniform resource locator
to use all of them is https://www.uartsy.com/users/eshter is way to access nintendo free codes using
eshop generator https://www.creative-commission.com/users/eshter this can be happend to easy play games
there are lots of games that can to pay before playing http://www.betternetworker.com/members/eshop21 this helps to generate,
And use to play free games http://www.dead.net/member/eshop12 this urls are build to reach the desire eshop gift card
and easy to apply for your favorite games http://www.curezone.org/m/profile.asp?un=eshopcodes from nintendo
all the resoureces are here to http://freecheatncodes.tripod.com/ indicates a single generator to get them codes
no other place you can find these imporatnt gift card https://www.kiwibox.com/ehsop9/mypage/ we are developed
this idea to free play games and can only redeem https://disqus.com/by/eshopcodes/ through nintendo officially
you can use any one of url that have address to eshop codes generator http://rhizome.org/profile/jons-henry/ its a absolutly free and
easy to oprate http://www.imxprs.com/free/sprinkler/funcodezz no need to any skill while you generating these codes,
every nintendo player is worried about the high rate of its game http://eshopworld.webflow.io/ but here not to give
any penny for accessing the resource for http://rider.doodlekit.com/ nintendo games this is working codes and
it can be generate limited number of http://stepsignal33.cabanova.com free nintendo eshop codes that useful to get
get in ust simple steps http://www.eshopfreecodes.spruz.com/blog.htm you have to find the right place
that is given every of uniform resource locater https://audioboom.com/Vivekmohan and its a basically address to
easily reach the nintendo generator http://www.bookcrossing.com/mybookshelf/rogger_89 there is not need to any,
nintendo id its only reqired the email that https://www.gameinformer.com/members/sanyooo/default.aspx eshop can send
by the eshop codes generator through mail http://realitysandwich.com/u/jasoncosta/profile/ its codes are redeem at nintendo
and this nintendo free codes are working https://www.lonelyplanet.com/profile/Eshopcodes target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>https://www.lonelyplanet.com/profile/Eshopcodes, to all purchase of any resource of
nintendo like 3ds and wii-u also http://www.hellocoton.fr/mapage/eshofreecodes target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>http://www.hellocoton.fr/mapage/eshofreecodes you can take advantages to getiing 3ds system
also if you have enough free codes http://www.workpost.com/eshopcodes5108_profile.aspx target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>http://www.workpost.com/eshopcodes5108_profile.aspx you can buy a 3ds console
easily, It can apply for all the products https://eningamecode.jimdo.com/ use free eshop codes to access any of the features
this codes can be working through limited preiod of time http://egamecodeinfo.yolasite.com/ so you can now get hurry
for find true generator which are in these urls http://freecheatncodes.angelfire.com/ and full fill of your gaming
criteria many of the online users are http://ebusinesspages.com/Eshter.user target='_blank' style='color: #000; text-decoration: underline;'>http://ebusinesspages.com/Eshter.user purchasing lots of products and provides us
a positive feedback if you are get free eshop gift card codes http://www.bagtheweb.com/u/mudpie/profile than gives us support
by giving us feedback that codes work or not https://soundcloud.com/jos-hex our team finds you and helps for any further information
amnong all the player can use this codes https://aboutus.com/Eshnincodes for play new games introduced by nintendo, its largest
gaming company of the world https://visual.ly/community/interactive-graphic/gaming/method-generate-eshop-codes-online having many feature
of eshop codes you can visit any of those urls https://www.ju.edu.et/jl/content/good-news-nintendo-introduced-new-features-game-eshop for more about to generate and get into access.
here most of the users can http://www.myhealthskills.com/users/6572/show generate eshop codes for free using
nintendo generator are introduces to play free games https://www.interspire.com/forum/member.php?u=515490 this is amazing things
that nin gives the users to enjoy games https://viralnetworks.com/profile/uid/510776/Harris_Jons.html here can u make easy
gift card codes to http://www.pokerinside.com/profiles/view/271301 use instruction of nintendo
this can be redeem on nintendo http://energy-models.com/user/alistercook this features can be apply for all the products.

0 Replies » Reply
I must show my appreciation to this writer just for rescuing me from this type of crisis. Just after browsing throughout the online world and getting proposals that were not pleasant, I believed my entire life was well over. Being alive minus the approaches to the issues you’ve solved through this blog post is a crucial case, as well as ones that could have negatively damaged my career if I had not noticed your site. Your main understanding and kindness in controlling a lot of things was very useful. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t encountered such a step like this. I’m able to at this point relish my future. Thanks so much for the high quality and result oriented help. I won’t hesitate to endorse the sites to any person who should have assistance on this area.
0 Replies » Reply
Whenever I speak to people about SEO, the number one question that I get asked is, “What’s the most important factor to rank number one in Google?” Because Google likes <a href='http://www.linkddl.com/site/gazhall.com'>sites</a> that link out to good quality content, publishing your own curated content can be a very smart move. A major consideration when creating internal backlinks is how you link different assets together. SEO-friendly content writing is not just about pandering to your audience with content that is splattered with keywords. <h2>It’s a win-win SEO strategy!</h2>Webpages with their target keyword in their URL tend to rank higher in Google than those that didn’t. It is recommended <a href='https://www.dailystrength.org/journals/the-importance-of-keyword-reviews'>to</a> take a holistic approach to SEO and consider all factors. The days of being able to manipulate one or two isolated metrics are gone. It’s important to have breadcrumbs on your website. They show users how a page fits into the structure of a site, and allow search engines to determine the site’s structure. The content on your site should be organized in a logical way. This is not only good for SEO, it also helps visitors on your site find other related content easily. <h2>Avoidance of unnecessary subdomains</h2>The other point that has become increasingly important is that relevant anchor text should be used in links. This applies not just to external links pointing into your site, but internal linkages throughout your Web site. Speed is a <a href='http://basic0908.eklablog.com/how-do-backlinks-help-seo-a134306250'>ranking</a> factor for desktop and a very important usability factor for mobile. Google is very serious about page loading times on mobile and that’s why they have introduced and pushing for the implementation of accelerated mobile pages. On regular pages and posts, Google will most probably grab a piece of related content, including the keyword used in the search query. That makes a lot of sense for news sites, for example. Still, I recommend adding a meta description to all your important pages. When it comes to choosing keywords, it’s important that they are not too specific or too broad. <h2>Make Sure People Still Search for the Topic</h2>Every site-owner needs to gather links and local business owners would probably benefit even more for good links. Real SEO is all about helping Google understand the content of your website. It’s about steering, guiding and assisting Google. Not manipulating it. Expect increased conversions, particularly those from visitors who arrived via organic search. According to Gaz Hall, a <a href='https://gazhall.com'>UK SEO Consultant</a> : "In addition to storing the content of each page, Google also stores how its crawlers arrived on the page. In other words, it remembers the pages and websites that were linking to it. A link from one site to another is like a vote or endorsement for the credibility of the second website." <h2>Finding Backlink Opportunities</h2>One of the main reasons a business professional might reject investing in SEO is because it seems to be highly dependent on the behavior of a search engine; they have no control over If you have <a href='http://www.mixerbookmarker.com/story.php?title=seo-hull-freelance-consultant-and-specialist-gaz-hall'>covered</a> the technical issues of a new website, you’ll have properly prepared your site for all the great content you’ll be adding. Especially for local or small businesses, determining your niche is very important. When you know your niche, you can emphasize what makes your products or brand unique, therefore improving your odds to rank well for them. Include any keywords you want to rank for in the title tag. The closer to the start of the tag the keyword is, the more likely that your page will rank for that keyword
0 Replies » Reply
Logo