Table 1 lists folic acid requirements for various species.
Folic acid crystallizes into yellow spear-shaped leaflets that are soluble in water and dilute alcohol. In acidic conditions, folic acid is easily destroyed by heat, and it deteriorates when exposed to sunlight or during prolonged storage.
Pond-cultivated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the Southeastern United States are sometimes affected by severe anemia termed no-blood disease. Studies have pointed to a folic acid deficiency resulting in no-blood disease (Butterworth et al., 1986). The causative agent has been found to be bacterial growth that metabolizes folic acid (Plumb et al., 1991, 1993).
Marginal vitamin C status has been shown to increase the folic acid requirement of catfish (Duncan and Lovell, 1994a, b).