Table 1 lists pantothenic acid requirements for various species.
Readily soluble in water and used in the form of calcium d-pantothenate (92% activity; solubility of about 40 g per 100 ml) or calcium dl-pantothenate (46% activity), pantothenic acid is fairly stable in air and light if protected from humidity but is sensitive to heat.
Pantothenic acid is found in feeds in both bound (largely as CoA) and free forms. It is necessary to liberate the pantothenic acid from the bound forms in the digestive process prior to absorption.
The concentration of pantothenate in ovaries has been shown to be very high in a number of species (Sandnes et al., 1998). The role of pantothenate in broodstock nutrition is not yet clearly elucidated.
Dietary pantothenic acid, up to 370 mg per kg dry diet, did not enhance immunity in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (Leith et al., 1989).