Poultry Premix and Mineral Feed

Poultry premixes may deliver more than nutrition through the inclusion of feed additives. Feed additives can be added on top of a finished feed diet or can be provided within the mineral feed or premix.   

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Vitamins, minerals, nutrition and performance

The balance of minerals and vitamins in poultry diets has become increasingly important to optimize diet compositions and meet the demands of modern poultry production. 

While vitamin and mineral nutrition play small part relative to complete nutrition, they have a crucial role in bird well-being and performance, along with supporting crucial body functions e.g. performance, growth, fertility, immunity (Ewing and Charlton, 2007).  

Continual improvements in production and performance levels, changes in feedstuffs, husbandry, legislations, environmental requirements and animal welfare mean that vitamin and mineral nutrition is dynamic and requires a consistent, regular and accurate assessment in all animal production systems (Ewing and Charlton, 2007). 

The need for poultry premixes in finished poultry feed

Finished feed is incomplete in the absence of supplemented vitamins and minerals. Most (typically plant-based) feedstuffs are rich in protein and energy, but lack sufficient amounts of trace elements or certain vitamins. Additionally, the availability of different nutrients in feedstuffs (non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs), phytate, etc.) vary considerably.  

A premix must be added to poultry diets in order to achieve the sufficient level of vitamins and minerals and prevent birds from becoming malnourished. 

Figure 1. A poultry premix completes the vitamin and mineral requirements of a diet | Source: BIOMIN

Minerals in poultry diets

Minerals are the inorganic elements of a bird’s diet. They are required in small amounts relative to organic elements, but even so, they have a sizeable impact on the bodily functions of avian species. Appropriate amounts of different minerals are needed in poultry diets in order to (Kirchgeßner, 2004): 

  • Maintain critical life functions
  • Improve performance 
  • Deliver additional benefits 

A variety of minerals are involved in the formulation of poultry diets and can be classified as follows. 

The various types of minerals in poultry diets have different effects and functions. Macrominerals are often components of structural tissue (e.g. bone, muscle, organs, soft tissue) or body fluids. They play a key role in the maintenance of the acid-base balance and osmotic pressure. In case of nervous transmission, muscle function and membrane electric potential, they are crucial.  

Microminerals include components of hormones, metallo-enzymes and enzyme factors, a few vitamins and amino acids. They also are related to adequate immune response and play a main role in the control of cell replication and differentiation.  

Se, Mn, Zn, Cu, cobalt and iodine have to be supplemented to poultry diets, because the levels found in different feed raw materials are often too low for reaching expected performance levels (Ewing and Charlton, 2007).  

Table 2. Categories of minerals in poultry nutrition | BIOMIN

Category Descriptioln Examples
Essential minerals Required in diets to support adequate performance (growth, reproduction, health) Phosphorus, Sodium, Selenium
Non-essential minerals Do not play an active role in the organism.  
Macrominerals (Major minerals) Found with more than 50 mg per kg body weight Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Chlorine (CI) and Sulphur (S). Na, K and CL are also known as electrolytes (Jeroch et al., 2013)

Mineral availability

When analysis for feed raw materials or finished feed diets are done, results for nutrient levels (like P, vitamins, Ca, Zn, etc.) are provided.  

It is important to highlight that not all minerals are available or digestible for birds simply because they are in the feed material.  

The digestion and utilization of nutrients depend on a host of different factors (Ewing and Charlton, 2007), including: 

  • Species
  • Age 
  • Intake  
  • Requirement  
  • Synergistic and antagonistic effects 
  • Environmental factors  

Poultry mineral supplements can support proper diet formulation and birds’ growth.

Vitamins in poultry nutrition

Vitamins are active, organic compounds that are essential for body functions and have a crucial impact with only small amounts in the feed to maintain physiological functions.  

A few vitamins play a role as co-enzymes (e.g. B-vitamins), also as precursors of co-enzymes, in metabolic processes. The difference between vitamins and minerals is that vitamins do not provide energy (e.g. P is necessary for building up ATP, which is the energy source in the living organisms), nor act as building substances (e.g. Ca – bones, eggshells, teeth…) (Jeroch et al., 2008 and Ewing and Charlton, 2007). 

Vitamins are found in plant and animal based feed materials in varying amounts. Nowadays, vitamin supplements for chickens are frequently produced synthetically or as a result of fermentation processes. Some vitamins have a direct effect without activation necessary, e.g. vitamin E and vitamin C. Pro-vitamins (preliminary stage, e.g. vitamin D) can be converted into active forms by the animal itself.  

Vitamins can be classified into fat-soluble, water-soluble, fat-soluble vitamin-like substances and water-soluble vitamin-like substances. 

Table 3. Vitamins by category and common name (adapted from Jeroch et al., 2008 and Ewing and Charlton, 2007)

Vitamin Fat- | Water-
soluble
With co-enzyme
function
Synonym
A + | - - Retinol
D + | - - Cholecalciferol (D3)
E + | - - α-tocopherol
K + | - + Phylloquinone
B1 - | + + Thiamin
B2 - | + + Riboflavin
B6 - | + + Pyridoxine
B12 - | + + Cobalamin
Niacin - | + + Vitamin B3
Pantothenic acid - | + + Vitamin B5
Folic acid - | + + Vitamin M
Biotin - | + + Vitamin H
C - | + - Ascorbic acid

In feedstuffs, fat-soluble vitamins are associated with lipid (fat) components and consist of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Their duty in the metabolism is more on the side of development and maintenance of tissues. They are stored in the body in considerable amounts and mainly excreted in the feces via the bile. Important to note is that an excessive intake can result in severe problems (“Hypervitaminosis”) in the animals, e.g. Vitamin D excess results in decalcification of bones and storage of Ca in blood vessels.  

Water-soluble vitamins are involved in enzymatic functions and control of the metabolism (co-enzyme function). They consist of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, also nitrogen, Sulphur or cobalt. Different to the fat-soluble fraction, water-soluble vitamins are not well stored in the body, except for vitamin B12. Important to note here is that a continuous supply has to be assured and an excess can be rapidly excreted in urine. Additional B-vitamins can be produced by microbes in the large intestine (absorption is limited).  

Nutrient requirements

The requirement for different minerals and vitamins is the necessary daily dose for maintaining physiological processes. In livestock feeding there are three more categories: the minimum, optimum and additional requirement (Jeroch et al., 2008 and Ewing and Charlton, 2007). 

The requirement (req) can be described in req per animal and day or req per unit mass of feed stuff/diet.  

Requirement varies among animal species and is influenced by other factors (Jeroch et al., 2008 and Ewing and Charlton, 2007): 

  • Age  
  • Level of performance  
  • Quality of feed  
  • Health status 
  • Genetics  
  • Physiological stage (e.g. growth, reproduction, etc.),  
  • Stress  
  • Management 
  • Environment (e.g. housing conditions, hygiene, climate, etc.).

Both the physical and nutritional properties of poultry premixes play a role in their effectiveness in final diet composition, flock health and performance.  

Table 5. Physical and nutritional properties of poultry premixes | Source: BIOMIN

Physical aspects Nutritional aspects
Raw material selection Nutrient availability
Distribution of nutrients inside the premix Quality of the carrier
Stability of nutrients Additional values (additives)
Compatibility of the carrier Animals' nutrient requirementws
Mixability in feed  
Flowability of the premix  

Nutrient availability for birds is affected by a host of factors (Jeroch et al., 2008 and Ewing and Charlton, 2007), including:  

  • Diet composition 
  • Feed quality e.g. mycotoxins in poultry feed 
  • Bioavailability of nutrients  
  • Stability of vitamins or nutrients 
  • Dietary intake  
  • Nutrient inter-relationships

Feed additives in poultry premixes

Poultry premixes may deliver more than nutrition through the inclusion of feed additives. Feed additives can be added on top of a finished feed diet or can be provided within the mineral feed or premix.   

In modern poultry husbandry, often challenges occur. Through feeding solutions, mycotoxin risk management and gut performance management, farmers are able to protect, support or rehabilitate their poultry flocks.  

Common challenges in the field often involve:  

References

Ewing W. N., Charlton S.J. The MINERALS Directory: 2nd Edition Your easy to use guide on minerals in animal nutrition. Context Products Ltd 2007. 

Ewing W. N., Charlton S.J. The VITAMINS Directory: Your easy to use guide on vitamins in animal nutrition. Context Products Ltd 2007.  

Jeroch H., Simon A., Zentek J. Geflügelernährung. Eugen Ulmer KG 2013.

Jeroch H., Drochner W., Simon O. Ernährung landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere. Eugen Ulmer KG 2008.  

Kirchgeßner M. Tierernährung. DLG-Verlags-GmbH 2004. 11. Auflage.

Poultry Premix and Mineral Feed Solutions

  • MaxiChick®

    Hen culling, infertility, embryo mortality and low-quality chicks cost the poultry industry worldwide a lot of money annually. To combat this, we have developed MaxiChick®, a specific and published patent solution to boost the productivity of the breeder flock.

  • Digital YolkFan™

    Consumers relate yolk color with nutritional value and the welfare of the hen. They are correct; a golden yolk always comes from a healthy hen. To deliver the product the customers want, a yolk pigmentation program must be established including good health, nutrition and the right level of carotenoids.

  • OVN™

    With Optimum Vitamin Nutrition (OVN™), animals are healthier and produce more – meaning better returns for producers. This is why we are serious about vitamins.

  • Hy-D®

    Hy-D® is the fast track vitamin D3 source, for a strong skeleton and better performance.

  • ProAct 360™

    DSM is the first and only supplier to launch its second generation feed protease, ProAct 360™, in order to further reduce production costs, while making animal production even more sustainable.

  • PoultryStar®

    PoultryStar® is a well-defined, multi-species poultry probiotic plus prebiotic (synbiotic) that promotes a beneficial gut microflora and improves the results of broilers, layers and breeders.

  • ROVIMIX® A1000

    ROVIMIX® A1000, your reliable vitamin A source We all know vitamins are essential for the health of our farm animals, but do you also know that of all vitamins, vitamin A may well be the most challenging to produce?

  • DHAgold™

    With DHAgold™ we bring you a sustainable source of DHA to enrich poultry, swine and aqua.

  • Balancius®

    Together DSM and Novozymes have created Balancius® the first and only feed ingredient designed to unlock the hidden potential in gastrointestinal functionality.

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