Companion animals

DSM Vitamin Supplementation Guidelines 2016 for Animal Nutrition

Companion Animals

Expressed as unit per kg air-dry food with energy density of 4000 kcal ME/kg of dry matter. The dietary vitamin concentration should be corrected for energy density if the food energy density is greater than 4000 kcal/kg.

Category/Phase Vit. A(1) Vit. D3 Vit. E(2) Vit. K(Menadione)(3) Vit. B1 Vit. B2 Vit. B6 Vit. B12(4) Niacin d-Panto thenic acid Folic acid Biotin(5) Vit. C (6) Choline ß-carotene (7)
  I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
7100-23.000 640-1100 50-500 1,7-2 3-8 7-60 2-60 0,04-0,10 20-170 17-150 0,3-2 0,3-10 100-200 2100-3000 30-150
9000-25.000 750-1300 50-550 1-2 7-10 5-27 4-14 0,03-0,10 60-170 8-60 0,1-0,80 0,1-0,80 100-200 3200-3300 30-50

(1) Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2) Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be 10 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels are recommended to support the total antioxidant capacity of dogs and cats.
(3) Vitamin K as Menadione: supplementation is particularly important in canned cat foods that contains >25% fish when fed for long period of time.
(4) Vitamin B12: higher levels of supplementation might be needed in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this vitamin.
(5) ROVIMIX® Biotin: Higher level is recommended for the improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs.
(6) Use ROVIMIX® STAY-C® 35 for reducing loss during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of dogs and cats.
(7) ROVIMIX® ß-carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of dogs and cats and as a modulator of immune function.

Conversion Factors

Vitamin activity (active substance) Conversion factor from active substance to vitamin form
1 IU Vitamin A (retinol) 0,344 μg Vitamin A acetate (retinyl acetate)
1 IU Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 0,025 μg Vitamin D3
1 μg 25OHD3 40 IU Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
1,0 mg Vitamin E (tocopherol) 1,0 mg DL- α-Tocopheryl acetate
1,0 mg Vitamin K3 (menadione) 2,0 mg Menadione Sodium Bisulfite (MSB)
2,3 mg Menadione Nicotinamide Bisulfite (MNB)
1,0 mg Vitamin B1 (thiamine) 1,088 mg Thiamine mononitrate
1,12 mg Thiamine hydrochloride
1,0 mg Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 1,215 mg Pyridoxine hydrochloride
1,0 mg d-Pantothenic acid 1,087 mg Calcium d-pantothenate
2,174 mg Calcium dl-pantothenate
1,0 mg Biotin 1 mg D-Biotin
1,0 mg Vitamin C 1 mg L-Ascorbic acid
1,0 mg Choline 1,15 mg Choline chloride

Click in the species below to see the Optimum Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines

Broilers: Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Broiler breeders: Starter/Grower (Pullets), Layers and male breeders

Turkeys: Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Turkey breeders: Starter, Grower, Layers and male breeders

Hens and Duck layers, Layers breeders, Ducks and Geese, Partridges, Quails and pheasants, Ostrich and Emu

Fattening Pigs: Pre-starter, Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Breeders: Replacement gilts, Sows, Boars

Calves, milk replacer, Heifers, Beef cattle, Beef cows, Dairy cows, Breeding bulls Sheep & Goats

Foals, Leisure horses, Race horses, Mares and Stallions, Rabbits, Mick & Foxes

Dogs and cats

Salmon / Trout, Carp/Tilapia/Cat-fish, Eels, Seabream/Seabass, Shrimp

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