Ruminants

DSM Vitamin Supplementation Guidelines 2022 for Animal Nutrition

Ruminants

Category/Phase Vit. A(4) Vit. D3(4) 250HD3(4) (Hy•D®) Vit. E Vit. K3 Vit. B1 Vit. B2 Vit. B6 Vit. B12 Niacin Biotin d-Pantothenic acid Folic acid Vit. C  Choline ß-carotene
  I.U. I.U.   mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves
Milk replacer (0-3 months)
20,000 – 32,000 2,000 – 4,000   150 – 200 1.0 – 1.5  2.5 – 5.0 2.5 – 4.5 2.5 – 4.5 0.04 – 0.08 9.0 – 18.0 0.05 – 0.1 7.0 – 9.0 0.2 – 0.3 250 – 500 500 – 750 100(14)
Starter dry feed 7,500 – 10,000 2,200 – 3,000   135 – 200                        
Heifers (dairy replacement)
Growing
20,000 – 60,000 6,000 – 16,350   300 – 500             10 –20(12)         300 – 500(15)
6-4 weeks precalving 80,000 – 100,000 20,000 – 25,000 3(5) 2,000 – 3,000           6,000 – 12,000 20(12)         500 – 1,000(16)
Beef cattle
Growing
25,000 – 50,000 6,000 – 9,000   200 – 300   60 – 250(9)         10 –20(12)          
Fattening & finishing 40,000 – 80,000 5,000 – 7,000    500-2,000(6)   60-250(9)         10 –20(12)          
Beef cows 40,000 – 70,000 5,000 – 10,000   350 – 500             20(12)         300 – 500(15)
Dairy cows
Dry cows, far-off(2)
80,000 –120,000 25,000 – 30,000   1,100 – 4,000(7)           6,000 – 12,000(11) 20 – 40(13)         500 – 1,000(17)
Dry cows, close-up(3) 80,000 – 120,000 25,000 – 30,000 3(5) 2,000 – 4,000(7)             20 – 40(13)         500 – 1,000(16)
Lactation 100,000 – 150,000 25,000 – 40,000 1 600 – 1,000(8)           6,000 – 12,000(11) 20 – 40(13)         300 – 500(18)
Breeding bulls 50,000 – 80,000 5,000 – 10,000    300 – 500             20(12)          
Sheep & Goats 10,000 – 15,000 400 – 600    300 – 600   200(10)         5(12)         30 – 50

(1) Supplementary amount/head/day
(2) From dry-off to 3 weeks before calving
(3) From 3 weeks before calving to calving
(4) Local limits need to be observed 
(5) 3 weeks before calving 
(6) Upper level for improved color case-life, 100 to 120 days pre-slaughter 
(7) Upper level from 3 weeks pre-partum until 4 weeks post-partum
(8) Upper level for optimum udder health
(9) Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations 
(10) In high concentrate diets 
(11) From 2 weeks before parturition until peak lactation 
(12) For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling
(13) For optimum hoof health and milk yield 
(14) For 2 weeks after colostral period 
(15) 6-8 weeks before 1st insemination/mating when intake of green forage is low
(16) Lower level 8 weeks before 1st calving, upper level 4 weeks before 1st calving when intake of green forage is low
(17) Lower level during entire dry period (Far-off and Close-Up); upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only) 
(18) Dry and fresh beginning during the dry period until pregnancy is confirmed

Conversion Factors

Vitamin (active substance) Unit Conversion factor active substance form to vitamin form
Vitamin A (retinol) IU 1 IU Vitamin A = 0.344 μg Vitamin A acetate (retinyl acetate) 
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) IU 1 IU Vitamin D3 = 0.025 μg Vitamin D3
250HD3 (25 hydroxy- cholecalciferol) mg 1 μg 250HD3 = 40 IU Vitamin D3
Vitamin E (tocopherol) mg 1 mg Vitamin E = 1 IU Vitamin E = 1 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate
Vitamin K3 (menadione) mg 1 mg of Vitamin K3 = 2 mg of Menadione Sodium Bisulfite (MSB)
1 mg of Vitamin K3 = 2.3 mg of Menadione Nicotinamide Bisulfite (MNB)
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) mg 1 mg of Vitamin B1 = 1.088 mg of Thiamine mononitrate
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) mg  
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) mg 1 mg Vitamin B6 = 1.215 mg Pyridoxine hydrochloride
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) mg  
Vitamin B3 (Niacin; nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) mg 1 mg Nicotinic acid = 1 mg Niacin 
1 mg Nicotinamide (or Niacinamide) = 1 mg Niacin
Vitamin B5 (d-Pantothenic acid)  mg 1 mg d-Pantothenic acid = 1.087 mg Calcium d-pantothenate or 2.174 mg Calcium dl-pantothenate
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) mg  
Vitamin B7 (d-Biotin) mg 1 mg of Biotin = 1 mg D-Biotin 
Vitamin C mg 1 mg Vitamin C = 1 mg L-Ascorbic acid
β-carotene mg  
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Our Optimum Vitamin Nutrition (OVN™) concept is about feeding animals with high quality vitamins in the right amount, appropriate to their life stage and growing conditions. This ensures the optimization of animal health and welfare, performance quality and nutritional value of animal-origin food.  Key milestones towards sustainable Ruminant farming. We are intensely engaged in research and development, and we focus on partnering with all important stakeholders - leading scientists, universities, genetics companies, independent research institutes, customers.  This enables us to develop and produce a complete line of high-quality vitamins and support the feed industry with the new DSM Vitamin Supplementation Guidelines!

Click in the species below to see the Optimum Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines

Broilers: Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Broiler breeders: Starter/Grower (Pullets), Layers and male breeders

Turkeys: Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Turkey breeders: Starter, Grower, Layers and male breeders

Hens and Duck layers, Layers breeders, Ducks and Geese, Partridges, Quails and pheasants, Ostrich and Emu

Fattening Pigs: Pre-starter, Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Breeders: Replacement gilts, Sows, Boars

Calves, milk replacer, Heifers, Beef cattle, Beef cows, Dairy cows, Breeding bulls Sheep & Goats

Foals, Leisure horses, Race horses, Mares and Stallions, Rabbits, Mick & Foxes

Dogs and cats

Salmon / Trout, Carp/Tilapia/Cat-fish, Eels, Seabream/Seabass, Shrimp

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