Ruminants

DSM Vitamin Supplementation Guidelines 2016 for Animal Nutrition

Ruminants

Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D3(2) Vit. E(5) Vit. K(Menadione) Vit. B1 Vit. B2 Vit. B6 Vit. B12 Niacin d-Panto thenic acid Folic acid Biotin Vit. C  Choline ß-carotene
  I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer(1)
0-3 months
20.000-32.000 1400-1800 100-150 1-1,5 2,5-5 2,5-4,5 2,5-4,5 0,04-0,08 9-18 7-9 0,2-0,3 0,05-0,10 250-500 500-750 100(13)
Heifers(2)
Rearing
20.000-40.000 2500-4000 500                 10-20(11)     300-500(14)
6-4 wks before calving 60.000-75.000 15.000-20.000 1000-3000                 20(11)     500-1000(15)
Beef cattle(2)
Growing
25.000-50.000 6000-9000 200-300   60-250(9)             10-20(11)      
Fattening & finishing 40.000-80.000 5000-7000 500-2000(6)   60-250(9)             10-20(11)      
Beef cows(2) 40.000-70.000 5000-10.000 300-500                 20(11)     300-500(14)
Dairy cows(2)
Far off & Close-up(3)
80.000-100.000 25.000-30.000 1000-4000(7)                 20(12)     500-1000(16)
Transition(4) 80.000-100.000 25.000-30.000 1000-4000(7)           5000-10000(10)     20(12)     500-800(17)
Lactation 100.000-150.000 25.000-40.000 600-1000(8)           5000-10000(10)     20(12)     300-500(18)
Breeding bulls(2) 50.000-80.000 5000-10.000 300-500                 20(11)      
Sheep & Goats(2) 5000-10.000 400-600 200-600                 5(12)     30-50

(1) Added per kg Calf Milk Replacer powder
(2) Supplementary amount per animal per day
(3) Far off: from 8 to 3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving
(4) Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving
(5) Local legal limits need to be observed
(6) Upper level for improved color shelf-life, 100 to 120 days pre-slaughter
(7) Upper level from 21 days pre-partum until 28 days post-partum
(8) Upper level for optimum udder health
(9) Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations
(10) From 2 weeks before parturition until peak lactation
(11) For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling
(12) For optimum hoof health and milk yield
(13) For 2 weeks after colostral period
(14) 6-8 weeks before 1st insemination/mating when intake of green forage is low
(15) Lower level 8 weeks before 1st calving; upper level 4 weeks before 1st calving when intake of green forage is low
(16) Lower level during entire dry period (Far off and Close-up); upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only)
(17) 500-800 mg from 3 to 4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg from 4 to 6 week after calving
(18) Dry and fresh: beginning during the dry period until pregnancy is confirmed

 

Conversion Factors

Vitamin activity (active substance) Conversion factor from active substance to vitamin form
1 IU Vitamin A (retinol) 0,344 μg Vitamin A acetate (retinyl acetate)
1 IU Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 0,025 μg Vitamin D3
1 μg 25OHD3 40 IU Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
1,0 mg Vitamin E (tocopherol) 1,0 mg DL- α-Tocopheryl acetate
1,0 mg Vitamin K3 (menadione) 2,0 mg Menadione Sodium Bisulfite (MSB)
2,3 mg Menadione Nicotinamide Bisulfite (MNB)
1,0 mg Vitamin B1 (thiamine) 1,088 mg Thiamine mononitrate
1,12 mg Thiamine hydrochloride
1,0 mg Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 1,215 mg Pyridoxine hydrochloride
1,0 mg d-Pantothenic acid 1,087 mg Calcium d-pantothenate
2,174 mg Calcium dl-pantothenate
1,0 mg Biotin 1 mg D-Biotin
1,0 mg Vitamin C 1 mg L-Ascorbic acid
1,0 mg Choline 1,15 mg Choline chloride

Click in the species below to see the Optimum Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines

Broilers: Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Broiler breeders: Starter/Grower (Pullets), Layers and male breeders

Turkeys: Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Turkey breeders: Starter, Grower, Layers and male breeders

Hens and Duck layers, Layers breeders, Ducks and Geese, Partridges, Quails and pheasants, Ostrich and Emu

Fattening Pigs: Pre-starter, Starter, Grower, Finisher.

Breeders: Replacement gilts, Sows, Boars

Calves, milk replacer, Heifers, Beef cattle, Beef cows, Dairy cows, Breeding bulls Sheep & Goats

Foals, Leisure horses, Race horses, Mares and Stallions, Rabbits, Mick & Foxes

Dogs and cats

Salmon / Trout, Carp/Tilapia/Cat-fish, Eels, Seabream/Seabass, Shrimp

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