Wheat comes in many varieties and is grown in many areas around the globe, which leads to fluctuations in its composition and quality, and hence also of gluten quality. The milling industry thus faces a daily challenge to produce flours with good and consistent baking quality. To improve the quality of bread, bakers add bread improvers to further modify dough properties and improve bread quality.
Ascorbic acid is the preferred oxidizing agent to improve the gluten network needed to bake bread with the taste, texture and volume appreciated by consumers. In response to the current price volatility of ascorbic acid, DSM has developed the enzyme blend BakeZyme® AAA. It provides a cost-effective way to reduce ascorbic acid dosage in bread by up to 50%, while maintaining the high-quality bread that consumers expect.
The three oxidizing agents traditionally used are potassium bromate, ADA (azodicarbonamide) and ascorbic acid.
Potassium bromate is a very cheap and – due to its slow action – effective oxidizing agent. Concerns about its safety to public health have led to it being banned in many countries. In countries where potassium bromate is not permitted, ascorbic acid is the oxidizing agent of choice, sometimes combined with ADA, where allowed. However, a few years ago ADA also came under pressure and many bread improver formulations have been altered since. Ascorbic acid is thus currently the most important and most widely used chemically synthesized oxidizing agent in the world for the baking industry.
BakeZyme® AAA supports the oxidizing properties of the gluten network during dough mixing and solves the negative effects of high glucose oxidase levels that can make doughs too rigid. The enzyme is an add-on to existing bread improvers and flour correctors which reduces the development time for reformulation and smooth transition. Existing glucose oxidase levels in improvers can generally be maintained. Due to optimization of the composition, a synergistic effect between the enzymes in the blend is achieved that supports dough rheology, stability, loaf volume and uniformity of the baked products.
By adding 30 ppm ascorbic acid and 3 ppm BakeZyme® AAA the same volume can be reached as by adding 60 ppm ascorbic acid.
This technical paper explains the science behind the formation of the gluten network by the gliadin and glutenin proteins, the effect of glutathione on dough characteristics, the mechanism of ascorbic acid as oxidizing agent and how BakeZyme® AAA reduces the amount of ascorbic acid.
18 October 2018