The role of cultures and coagulants on taste and texture of cheese
To produce cheeses with just the right flavor and texture to appeal to very specific markets, it’s vital that cheesemakers select the right cultures, adjuncts and coagulants.
Choosing the right coagulant for the right texture
For pasta filata, cheddar and continental cheeses such as Gouda and Maasdam, texture, sliceability and shredability are key characteristics, as they can have important consequences on productivity and profitability. These textural traits are heavily influenced by proteolytic activity and a homogenous moisture distribution in the cheese.
Research indicates that selecting the right coagulant can lead to a carbon footprint reduction of 3.5% across the total cheese production process.1
Adding a coagulant with a low proteolytic activity – such as a coagulant enzyme that is highly specific towards k-casein – to the production process, leads to a cheese with improved texture and moisture distribution, as well as better sliceability. This can result in 15% less waste during slicing. Improved sliceability also allows cheesemakers to increase the water content of a cheese by up to 2%, further increasing the quality of the final product. The economic gain achieved by improving the yield over the entire production run will impact the cost-effectiveness of the cheese production plant significantly.
Flavor also depends on choice of coagulant
Coagulant enzymes also play a key role in the flavor development of cheese. Firstly, they support cheese ripening by cutting the α-caseins to increase accessibility of the enzymes of the lactic acid bacteria; a process that aids the development of flavor. Secondly, specificity in cutting casein also helps to improves taste. This is because the right coagulant prevents the hydrolysis of β-caseins during ripening, avoiding the development of a bitter off-flavor taste.
The role of a culture in flavor development
The type and dosage of the culture used during the cheese development process are important in determining the final taste of a cheese. Cheese cultures have two functionalities; their acidifying properties, for instance, decrease the pH scale in a product and thereby affect the taste and texture of the cheese; cultures also help to further develop taste components by breaking down available sugars (such as lactose and galactose) and proteins, which impacts taste, texture and therefore the characteristics of the final cheese. Both aspects are closely connected.
DSM helps cheesemakers optimize texture and taste
DSM provides cultures and coagulants to help cheesemakers worldwide produce cheeses with just the right texture and flavor to appeal to their very specific markets. DSM’s Delvo®Cheese starter cultures help dairy manufacturers optimize cheese production while improving cheese flavor, texture and quality, while its Delvo®ADD adjuncts enable cheese producers to achieve distinctive and delicious flavor and/or texture profiles.
DSM also offers two vegetarian coagulants; Maxiren® and Fromase®. Maxiren® is a fermentation produced chymosin, while Fromase® is a high-quality microbial coagulant (endopeptidase) preparation. Part of the Maxiren® range, Maxiren® XDS has the highest specificity in the coagulation process and lowest proteolytic activity during ripening, resulting in an optimal cheese texture. It also has the highest thermolability, which guarantees worry-free whey processing.
Whether customers produce continental, mozzarella, cheddar, cottage, white or Swiss cheeses, DSM’s experts will gladly provide a sample of the appropriate starter culture, adjunct or coagulant. Contact our experts for more information.
1 Prof Peter de Jong, International Dairy Management, 4-5, April 2017
August 14th, 2019
July 08th, 2019