<p>Immunity and Infections</p>

Immunity and Infections

Clinical studies have reported a relationship between HMOs and some immune outcomes in infants. Emerging science suggest that specific HMOs at the correct level of supplementation may help to reduce the risk of certain infections in infants consuming infant formula. 

A clinical trial supplementing LNnT plus 2’FL in infant formula was reported to help support the immune system of infants.  The results included a reduction in the incidence of certain (parent-reported) infections and illnesses. Also reported were significantly fewer lower respiratory tract infections; and a significant reduction in the use of anti-fever medication, and antibiotic use during the first 12 months of life (1). 

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<p>Gut Health and Microbiota</p>

Gut Health and Microbiota

Preclinical and clinical data report that HMOs may help to stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, which are believed to be important for development of the microbiota and gut health in infants. 

A clinical trial of infant formula supplemented with LNnT and 2’FL reported an increase in the population of bifidobacteria and an infant fecal microbiota more closely resembling that of a breast fed infant. Moreover the LNnT and 2’FL supplemented group was also reported to bring the intestinal microbiota of those infants born by C-section closer to that observed in infants born vaginally from the control group (2). At 2 months of age significantly softer stools were reported in the 2’FL+ LNnT group (1). 

Emerging science from preclinical study data may also indicate a role for LNnT alone in the growth of beneficial bacteria (3,4,5) and gut health (6,7).

<p>Allergy Development</p>

Allergy Development

Emerging data from pre-clinical models and breast milk studies suggest that HMOs may play a role reducing the incidence of certain allergic manifestations.

<p>Hypoallergenicity</p>

Hypoallergenicity

An extensively hydrolyzed whey-based formula containing 2’FL and LNnT has been shown to be hypoallergenic.

An extensively hydrolyzed whey-based formula containing 2’FL and LNnT met the AAP criteria for hypoallergenicity.

Note that hypoallergenicity at levels above those studied (1.0 g/L and 0.5 g/L) may need to be assessed.

References

1. Puccio, G. et al., (2017). Effects of infant formula with human milk oligosaccharides on growth and morbidity: a randomized multicenter trial.  JPGN 64: 624-31.

2. Berger, B et al., (2020). Linking human milk oligosaccharides, infant fecal community types, and later risk to require antibiotics.  mBio 11: e03196-19.

3. Miwa, M., Horimoto, T., Kiyohara, M., Katayama, T., Kitaoka, M., Ashida, H., & Yamamoto, K. (2010). Cooperation of β-galactosidase and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase from bifidobacteria in assimilation of human milk oligosaccharides with type 2 structure. Glycobiology, 20(11), 1402–1409. https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwq101 

4. Marcobal, A., Barboza, M., Sonnenburg, E. D., Pudlo, N., Martens, E. C., Desai, P., … Sonnenburg, J. L. (2011). Bacteroides in the infant gut consume milk oligosaccharides via mucus-utilization pathways. Cell Host and Microbe, 10(5), 507–514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2011.10.007 

5. Boler, B. M. V., Serao, M. C. R., Faber, T. a, Bauer, L. L., Chow, J., Murphy, M. R., & Fahey, G. C. (2013). In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Select Nondigestible. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 2109–2119.

6. Knol, C. (2018). Cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium infantis and Anaerostipes caccae on lactose and human milk oligosaccharides. BioRxiv.

7. Hester, S. N., & Donovan, S. M. (2012). Individual and Combined Effects of Nucleotides and Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Necrosis in a Human Fetal Intestinal Cell Line. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 03(11), 1567–1576. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2012.311205 

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