<p>Immunity and Infections</p>

Immunity and Infections

Clinical studies suggest a relationship between HMOs and some immune outcomes in infants. Emerging science suggest that specific HMOs at the correct level of supplementation may help to reduce the risk of certain infections in infants consuming infant formula and in infants who are breastfed.

Emerging science from preclinical studies suggests a potential role for 6’SL in immune function. In an in vitro study 6’SL was reported to reduce the activity of 2 rotavirus strains (1). Another preclinical study in rodents described a 6’SL induced anti-inflammatory response (2). 

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<p>Gut Health and Microbiota</p>

Gut Health and Microbiota

Clinical and preclinical studies report that HMOs support the growth of beneficial bacteria which are believed to have a role in intestinal development and gut health of an infant. Preclinical studies suggest a potential role for 6’SL in gut health via its support of the growth of beneficial bacteria (3,4,5).

Regulatory filings for 6'SL have been made in EU and US and preparation on way for other major markets. 

GlyCare™ 6SL will be commercially available from 2020. 

<p>Brain and Cognitive Development</p>

Brain and Cognitive Development

Emerging science from preclinical studies suggest that 6’SL may have a potential role in brain development. A preclinical study in pigs reported that supplementation with HMO’s including 6’SL resulted in an enrichment of brain sialic acid content. This may be important for infants serving as an important source of sialic acid for brain development (6,7).  Preclinical studies in rodents have also shown that 6’SL may diminish anxiety behavior and have a possible role in learning and memory (8,9). 

References

1. Laucirica, D. R., Triantis, V., Schoemaker, R., Estes, M. K., and Ramani, S. (2017). Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Human Ro- tavirus Infectivity in MA104 Cells. The Journal of Nutrition, (C):jn246090.

2. Huang, Y. L., Chassard, C., Hausmann, M., Von Itzstein, M., and Hennet, T. (2015b). Sialic acid catabolism drives intestinal inflammation and microbial dysbiosis in mice. Nature Communications, 6:1–11.  

3. Moon, J.S., Joo, W., Ling, Li., Cho, H.S., Han, N.S., (2016) In vitro digestion and fermentation of sialyllactoses by infant gut microflora. Journal of Functional Foods, 21, 497–506.  

4. Nishiyama, K., Nagai, A., Uribayashi, K., Yamamoto, Y., Mukai, T., & Okada, N. (2018). Two extracellular sialidases from Bifidobacterium bifidum promote the degradation of sialyl-oligosaccharides and support the growth of Bifidobacterium breve. Anaerobe, 52, 22–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.05.007

5. Nishiyama, K. (2017). Bifidobacterium bifidum Extracellular Sialidase Enhances Adhesion to the Mucosal Surface and Supports Carbohydrate Assimilation Keita. American Society for Microbiology, 8(5), 1–15.

6. Jacobi, S. K., Yatsunenko, T., Li, D., Dasgupta, S., Yu, R. K., Berg, B. M., … Odle, J. (2016). Dietary Isomers of Sialyllactose Increase Ganglioside Sialic Acid Concentrations in the Corpus Callosum and Cerebellum and Modulate the Colonic Microbiota of Formula-Fed Piglets. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(2), 200–208. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.220152 

7. Wang B, McVeagh P, Petocz P, Brand-Miller J. Brain ganglioside and glycoprotein sialic acid in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(5):1024-1029. doi:10.1093/ajcn/78.5.1024

8. Oliveros, E., Vázquez, E., Barranco, A., Ramírez, M., Gruart, A., Delgado-García, J. M., … Martín, M. J. (2018). Sialic acid and sialylated oligosaccharide supplementation during lactation improves learning and memory in rats. Nutrients, 10(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101519 

9. Tarr, A. J., Galley, J. D., Fisher, S. E., Chichlowski, M., Berg, B. M., & Bailey, M. T. (2015). The prebiotics 3’Sialyllactose and 6’Sialyllactose diminish stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior and colonic microbiota alterations: Evidence for effects on the gut-brain axis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 50, 166–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2015.06.025 

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