<p>Immunity and Infections</p>

Immunity and Infections

HMO studies (clinical) suggest a relationship between human milk ologosaccharides and some immune outcomes in infants.  Emerging science suggest that specific HMOs at the correct level of supplementation may help to reduce the risk of certain infections in infants consuming infant formula and in infants who are breastfed.

Emerging evidence from preclinical studies suggest that LNT may support immune health via inhibiting the adhesion of pathogens to cell walls (1,2) and binding to toxins (3). 

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<p>Gut Health and Microbiota</p>

Gut Health and Microbiota

Clinical and preclinical studies report that HMOs may help to stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, which are believed to be important for development of the microbiota and gut health. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests LNT may have a role in gut health via its positive impact on growth of bifidobacteria (4,5,6). 

References

1. Andersson, B., Dahmen, J., Tornbjorn, F., Leffler, H., Magnusson, G., Noori, G., & Svanborg Eden, C. (1983). IDENTIFICATION OF AN ACTIVE DISACCHARIDE UNIT OF A GLYCOCONJUGATE RECEPTOR FOR PNEUMOCOCCI ATTACHING TO HUMAN PHARYNGEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS. J. Epx. Med., 158(August).

2. Andersson, B., Porras, O., Hanson, L. Å., Svanborg Edén, C., & Leffler, H. (1985). Non-Antibody-Containing Fractions of Breast Milk Inhibit Epithelial Attachment of Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Haemophilus Influenzae. The Lancet, 325(8429), 643. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(85)92184-1 

3. El-Hawiet, A., Kitova, E. N., and Klassen, J. S. (2015). Recognition of human milk oligosaccharides by bacterial exotoxins. Glycobi- ology, 25(8):845–854. 

4. Sela, D. A., Garrido, D., Lerno, L., Wu, S., Tan, K., Eom, H. J., Joachimiak, A., Lebrilla, C. B., and Mills, D. A. (2012). Bifidobac- terium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 α-fucosidases are active on fucosy- lated human milk oligosaccharides. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(3):795–803.

5. Ruiz-Moyano, S., Totten, S. M., Garrido, D. A., Smilowitz, J. T., Bruce German, J., Lebrilla, C. B., and Mills, D. A. (2013). Variation in consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut- associated strains of bifidobacterium breve. Applied and Environmental Mi- crobiology, 79(19):6040–6049.

6. Duranti, S., Lugli, G. A., Milani, C., James, K., Man- cabelli, L., Turroni, F., Alessandri, G., Mangifesta, M., Mancino, W., Os- siprandi, M. C., Iori, A., Rota, C., Gargano, G., Bernasconi, S., Di Pierro, F., van Sinderen, D., and Ventura, M. (2019). Bifidobacterium bifidum and the infant gut microbiota: an intriguing case of microbe-host co-evolution. Environmental Microbiology, 21(10):3683–3695.

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