<p>Immunity and Infections</p>

Immunity and Infections

Clinical studies suggest a relationship between HMOs and some immune outcomes in infants.  Emerging science suggest that specific HMOs at the correct level of supplementation may help to reduce the risk of certain infections in infants consuming infant formula and in infants who are breastfed.

Emerging evidence from preclinical studies suggest that 3’FL may support immune health via inhibiting the adhesion of pathogens to the intestinal wall (1,2).

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<p>Gut Health and Microbiota</p>

Gut Health and Microbiota

Clinical and preclinical studies report that HMOs may help to stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, which are believed to be important for development of the microbiota and gut health. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests 3’FL may have a role in gut health via its positive impact on the growth of bifidobacteria which are considered to be beneficial for gut health (3,4,5).

References

1. Weichert, S., Jennewein, S., Hüfner, E., Weiss, C., Borkowski, J., Putze, J., & Schroten, H. (2013). Bioengineered 2’-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose inhibit the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric pathogens to human intestinal and respiratory cell lines. Nutrition Research, 33(10), 831–838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2013.07.009 

2. Brassart, D., Woltz, A., Golliard, M., & Neeser, J. R. (1991). In vitro inhibition of adhesion of Candida albicans clinical isolates to human buccal epithelial cells by Fucα1→2Galβ-bearing complex carbohydrates. Infection and Immunity, 59(5), 1605–1613. https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.59.5.1605-1613.1991 

3. Yu, Z. T., Chen, C., Kling, D. E., Liu, B., McCoy, J. M., Merighi, M., … Newburg, D. S. (2013). The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota. Glycobiology, 23(2), 169–177. https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cws138 

4. Ashida, H., Miyake, A., Kiyohara, M., Wada, J., Yoshida, E., Kumagai, H., … Yamamoto, K. (2009). Two distinct α-L-fucosidases from Bifidobacterium bifidum are essential for the utilization of fucosylated milk oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. Glycobiology, 19(9), 1010–1017. https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwp082 

5. Schwab, C., & Gänzle, M. (2011). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation of human milk oligosaccharide components, human milk oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 315(2), 141–148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02185.x 

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