<p>Immunity and Infections</p>

Immunity and Infections

Clinical studies suggest a relationship between HMOs and some immune outcomes in infants.  Emerging science suggest that specific HMOs  at the correct level of supplementation may help to reduce the risk of certain infections in infants consuming infant formula and in infants who are breastfed.

Emerging evidence from preclinical studies suggest that 3’SL may have a potential role in immune function with 3’SL functioning as a decoy receptor for pathogens which may have implications for certain infections (1,2,3). 

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<p>Gut Health and Microbiota</p>

Gut Health and Microbiota

Clinical and preclinical studies report that HMOs may help to stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, which are believed to be important for development of the microbiota and gut health. Preliminary evidence from a preclinical study suggests 3’SL may have a role in gut health via its positive impact on the growth of bifidobacteria which are considered to be beneficial for gut health (4). 

<p>Brain and Cognitive Development</p>

Brain and Cognitive Development

Emerging science from preclinical studies suggest that 3’SL may have a potential role in brain development. Preclinical studies in rodent and pigs reported that supplementation with HMO’s including 3’SL resulted in an enriched sialic acid content in the brain. This may be important for infants serving as an important source of sialic acid for brain development (5,6). 

References

1. Hirmo,  S.,  Artursson,  E.,  Puu,  G.,  Wadstr¨om,  T.,  and Nilsson, B. (1998). Characterization of Helicobacter pylori interactions with sialylglycoconjugates using a resonant mirror biosensor. Analytical Biochem- istry, 257(1):63–66.

2. Thomas, R. and Brooks, T. (2004). Common oligosaccharide moieties inhibit the adherence of typical and atypical res- piratory pathogens. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 53(9):833–840.

3. Lane,  J.  A.,   Marin˜o,   K.,   Naughton,   J.,   Kavanaugh,  D., Clyne, M., Carrington, S. D., and Hickey, R. M. (2012). Anti-infective bovine colostrum oligosaccharides: Campylobacter jejuni as a case study. Interna- tional Journal of Food Microbiology, 157(2):182–188.

4. Moon, J.S., Joo, W., Ling, Li., Cho, H.S., Han, N.S., (2016) In vitro digestion and fermentation of sialyllactoses by infant gut microflora. Journal of Functional Foods, 21, 497–506.  

5. Sakai, F., Ikeuchi, Y., Urashima, T., Fujihara, M., Ohtsuki, K., & Yanahira, S. (2006). Effects of Feeding Sialyllactose and Galactosylated N-Acetylneuraminic Acid on Swimming Learning Ability and Brain Lipid Composition in Adult Rats. Journal of Applied Glycoscience, 53(4), 249–254. https://doi.org/10.5458/jag.53.249 

6. Jacobi, S. K., Yatsunenko, T., Li, D., Dasgupta, S., Yu, R. K., Berg, B. M., … Odle, J. (2016). Dietary Isomers of Sialyllactose Increase Ganglioside Sialic Acid Concentrations in the Corpus Callosum and Cerebellum and Modulate the Colonic Microbiota of Formula-Fed Piglets. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(2), 200–208. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.220152 

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