GlyCare™ LNnT

GlyCare™ Lacto-N-neotetraose

LNnT is one of the most abundant neutral core HMO in human milk (1). 

Our HMOs are available in different forms including powders and tablets. Continue reading below to learn more about the exciting clinical and preclinical data for infants and children, or click Partner with us to talk with us about your product today. 

Immunity and Infections

Clinical studies suggest a relationship between HMOs and some immune outcomes in infants. Emerging science suggest that specific HMOs at the correct level of supplementation may help to reduce the risk of certain infections in infants consuming infant formula and in infants who are breastfed. 

A clinical trial supplementing LNnT plus 2’FL in infant formula was reported to help support the immune system of infants.  The results included a reduction in the incidence of certain (parent-reported) infections and illnesses. Also reported were significantly fewer lower respiratory tract infections; and a significant reduction in the use of anti-fever medication, and antibiotic use during the first 12 months of life (2). 

Gut Health and Microbiota

HMO reserch (preclinical and clinical data) report that HMOs may help to stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, which are believed to be important for development of the microbiota and gut health in infants. 

A clinical trial of infant formula supplemented with LNnT and 2’FL reported an increase in the population of bifidobacteria and an infant fecal microbiota more closely resembling that of a breast fed infant. Moreover the LNnT and 2’FL supplemented group was also reported to bring the intestinal microbiota of those infants born by C-section closer to that observed in infants born vaginally from the control group (3). At 2 months of age significantly softer stools were reported in the 2’FL+ LNnT group (2). 

Emerging science from preclinical study data may also indicate a role for LNnT alone in the growth of beneficial bacteria (4,5,6) and gut health (7,8).


Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is an immune response to proteins found in cow’s milk. It is one of the most common food allergies, impacting up to 3% at 1 year of age in developed countries (9). Extensively hydrolyzed protein infant formulas may be recommended by a doctor for use in non-breast fed infants with CMA. A recent clinical study of infants and children 2 months - 4 years of age with CMA reported that an extensively hydrolyzed infant formula, with 2’FL and LNnT (10) was safe and well tolerated. The formulation meets the American Academy of Pediatrics criteria for hypoallergenicity.


1. Erney, R. M., et al.,  (2000). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr: 30, 181-92.

2. Puccio, G. et al., (2017). Effects of infant formula with human milk oligosaccharides on growth and morbidity: a randomized multicenter trial.  JPGN 64: 624-31.

3. Berger, B et al., (2020). Linking human milk oligosaccharides, infant fecal community types, and later risk to require antibiotics.  mBio 11: e03196-19.

4. Miwa, M., Horimoto, T., Kiyohara, M., Katayama, T., Kitaoka, M., Ashida, H., & Yamamoto, K. (2010). Cooperation of β-galactosidase and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase from bifidobacteria in assimilation of human milk oligosaccharides with type 2 structure. Glycobiology, 20(11), 1402–1409.

5. Marcobal, A., Barboza, M., Sonnenburg, E. D., Pudlo, N., Martens, E. C., Desai, P., … Sonnenburg, J. L. (2011). Bacteroides in the infant gut consume milk oligosaccharides via mucus-utilization pathways. Cell Host and Microbe, 10(5), 507–514. 

6. Boler, B. M. V., Serao, M. C. R., Faber, T. a, Bauer, L. L., Chow, J., Murphy, M. R., & Fahey, G. C. (2013). In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Select Nondigestible. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 2109–2119.

7. Knol, C. (2018). Cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium infantis and Anaerostipes caccae on lactose and human milk oligosaccharides. BioRxiv.

8. Hester, S. N., & Donovan, S. M. (2012). Individual and Combined Effects of Nucleotides and Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Necrosis in a Human Fetal Intestinal Cell Line. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 03(11), 1567–1576. 

9. Flom JD, Sicherer SH. (2019). Epidemiology of Cow's Milk Allergy. Nutrients. 10;11(5):1051.

10. Nowak-Wegrzyn et al., (2019). Confirmed hypoallergenicity of a novel whey-based extensively hydrolyzed infant formula containing two human milk oligosaccharides.  Nutrients 11: 1447.

HMO Health Benefit Solutions

Human Milk Oligosaccharides may support a number of health benefits such as immunity and gut health in early life.




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