Mycotoxins

Selected species

MYCOTOXICOSIS IN POULTRY FEED

Mycotoxins in Poultry Feed

Uncovering which mycotoxins regularly contaminate poultry feed and the harm caused by mycotoxicosis in poultry

Mycotoxins in poultry feed pose a constant threat to the poultry industry globally. Many of the feed ingredients found in typical poultry rations can be contaminated by harmful mycotoxins that are ingested by birds and have a number of serious consequences. 

Some fungi produce mycotoxins on the field, while other fungi produce mycotoxins during the storage of grains. 

The most common poultry feed ingredients contaminated by mycotoxins include:

  • Corn and corn by-products
  • Wheat and wheat by-products
  • Soybean meal
  • Barley 
The Mycotoxin Survey provides regular update on the occurrence of mycotoxins in the raw commodities and finished feeds based on thousands of samples collected from across the globe.

Effects of mycotoxins in poultry

Poultry farm animals have heterogeneous sensitivity to mycotoxins, as different species suffer from different toxic effects. Ducks, geese, and turkeys seem to be more sensitive to mycotoxicoses than chickens and quails. Young chickens are more sensitive to the effects of mycotoxins.

Effects of Mycotoxins in Poultry

Enlarged and pale yellowish liver with yellow nodules observed in birds fed with aflatoxin contaminated feed. Aflatoxins were detected in the feed at 153 ppb | Source: BIOMIN

Aflatoxins in chickens 

Aflatoxins are known to have a hepatotoxic effect in poultry and also a hepatocarcinogenic effect in exposed animals. The most common pathological lesions associated with aflatoxicosis in poultry are found in the liver, lymphoid organs, and testes, often occurring over a period of chronic exposure. In acute-subacute aflatoxicosis, the liver appears enlarged, pale yellow in color, friable, and usually the gall bladder is also enlarged and filled with bile. 

The pancreas is usually small and depigmented and there could be hemorrhages on subcutaneous tissue and muscles. In chronic aflatoxicosis, the liver is small, firm, and rounded. Sometimes this organ is very small, rounded, and rubbery, and often complicated with ascites and hydropericardium. The other consistent lesions in aflatoxicosis can be found in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen, all of which appear smaller than normal. In male parent stock breeder birds, the size of the testes could also be significantly reduced.

Enlarged and pale yellowish liver with yellow nodules observed in birds fed with aflatoxin contaminated feed. Aflatoxins were detected in the feed at 458 ppb | Source: BIOMIN

Metabolic pathway of aflatoxins | Source Eaton and Gallagher 1994

Various metabolic pathways of aflatoxins

The metabolic pathway of aflatoxins could be different. Aflatoxin B1 can enter the cell and be metabolized via monooxygenases in the endoplasmic reticulum to hydroxylated metabolites, which are further metabolized to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Or it can be oxidized to a reactive epoxide state, which undergoes spontaneous hydrolysis to AFB1-8,9-dihydrodiol and bind to proteins, resulting in cytotoxicity. The epoxide version can react with DNA or protein, or be detoxified by an inducible glutathione S-transferase to the glutathione (GSH)-conjugate. Both the DNA adduct and the protein adducts have proven useful as biomarkers in humans and laboratory animals.

Several factors increase a bird’s susceptibility to mycotoxins, such as: 

  • Birds being placed in a hostile environment, e.g. high temperatures and humidity
  • Poor ventilation
  • High density
  • Challenges from poultry diseases e.g. coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis

Mycotoxin susceptibility

Co-occurence risk

The effects of mycotoxins in poultry are very complex and varies greatly according to their mechanism of toxicity affecting several organs and, in case of high contamination levels, may even lead to death of animals. When mycotoxins are present simultaneously in feed, they may have synergistic or additive effects.

Even at low levels of mycotoxins in feed, during sensitive period of production cycle or when exposed for long periods, can impair the immune system leading to the immune suppressive conditions. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, and fumonisins are known to induce immune suppressive effects in chickens, rendering them more susceptible to diseases (Singh et al., 1990, Ghosh et al., 1991). In addition, low level of mycotoxins can have an antimicrobial effect and can cause feed passage (Devegowda and Murthy, 2005).

AFB1 - Aflatoxin B1 ; FB1 – Fumonisin B1 ; DON – Deoxynivalenol; OTA – Ochratoxin A; ZEN – Zearalenone; FA – Fusaric acid; DAS – Diacetoxyscirpenol; CPA – Cyclopiazonic acid; MON – Moniliformin

Additive (dashed black line) and synergistic (red line) effects in poultry

Impact on gastrointestinal tract

Any mycotoxins present in feed are delivered straight to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the birds, the organ most affected by mycotoxins. The gastrointestinal tract is the most important organ for converting feed into energy, and its ability to function properly is directly linked to poultry productivity. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is also the biggest immune organ in the body system.

Among the major mycotoxins, DON (deoxynivalenol), ZEN (zearalenone) and FUM (fumonisins) are often overlooked when considering their impact on poultry health and productivity since their clinical symptoms are not usually obvious or visible. However, there have been a number of scientific and commercial trials that prove these Fusarium mycotoxins are closely related to some important poultry diseases.

Figure 4. Consequences of mycotoxin contamination on GIT condition

Impaired immunity at low mycotoxin contamination levels

Immunotoxic substances such as mycotoxins are unsuspected players in the failure of vaccines to provoke a proper immune response. 

DON and its co-occurrence with FUM are known to modulate the immune function. One good example is the reduction in the number of antibody titres against vaccine programs in poultry. Several research results have shown that DON and FUM reduce antibody response to Newcastle Disease (ND) and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). In one experiment conducted in Austria, the feeding of a DON-contaminated diet decreased serum antibody titres against the IBV vaccine (Figure 4) compared to the control diet. 

Mycofix® was able to counteract the effects of deoxnivalenol on IBV antibody titres in broilers. 

Figure 5. Effect of DON and Mycofix® Select on IBV antibody titres in broiler chickens

Effects of mycotoxins in week one chicks

Week one chicks are at a crucial stage with seemingly minor issues having the potential to determine their health prospects in both the short and long term. Development of the intestinal tract and an active immune system is the central foundation of a healthy bird’s life, and it is exactly that which is at risk from early exposure to mycotoxins. Interference at this stage, even if low-level, can have disastrous results at a later stage. Low mycotoxin doses can combine with environmental stressors, even if they are out of the rearer’s control.

This combination can result in invisible losses, with subclinical effects that include:

  • Disruption of gut health
  • Greater susceptibility to disease
  • More serious immune problems in later life
  • Further losses to economic performance
  • Signs of infection

Interested in more about the mycotoxin risk in 1-week-old chicks. Contact us. 

Diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in poultry

Clinical signs and pathological lesions on primary target organs can be used as an early warning system (EWS) for mycotoxin contamination in feed/raw materials.

Mycotoxin-induced illness, or mycotoxicosis, may be difficult to directly observe. There are several common clinical signs and pathological lesions of mycotoxicoses in poultry.

Signs of mycotoxin ingestion by birds include:

  • A flock in a farm which consumed the same feed/raw materials are affected
  • Antimicrobial treatment has little or even no effect on the disease
  • Field outbreaks are seasonal and associated with specific feedstuffs
  • Examination of the suspected feed reveals signs of fungal activity (Richard, 2012). 

Even though the effects of mycotoxins are very complex and there is a great variation in possible symptoms, target organs, and pathological lesions from one mycotoxin to the other (Naehrer, 2012), presumptive diagnosis can be based on clinical signs, pathological lesions on target organs, especially when moldy ingredients or feed are evident. 

Definitive diagnosis should be based on isolation, identification, and quantification of the specific mycotoxin/mycotoxins in feed ingredients or finished feed. Samples of feed and ingredients should be collected and promptly submitted for laboratory analysis. Multiple samples should be collected from different sites of mycotoxin formation zone (“hot spots”) (Whitaker et al., 2005, Krska and Schuhmacher, 2012).

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Remarks by Charles Rangga Tabbu, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, during the poultry breakout session at the 2016 World Nutrition Forum in Vancouver, Canada.

Mycotoxin risk management in poultry

When it comes to counteracting mycotoxins, the poultry industry tends to think of toxin binders or mycotoxin binders first. (Learn the truth about mycotoxin binders). 

However, clay mineral binders are not an effective answer to all major mycotoxins. Especially not against trichothecenes mycotoxins since their structures are not suitable for adsorbing by binders. Biotransformation using microbes and enzymes is the most effective strategy. It provides reliable protection against mycotoxins, biodegrading them into non-toxic metabolites. The biotransformation is fast, specific and irreversible.

In addition to biotransformation, a bioprotection strategy is also important. Variety of feed additives is available that contains plant and algae extracts to provide a hepato-protective effect and to overcome the immune suppression caused by mycotoxins. A combination of different strategies can counteract the negative effects of mycotoxins in poultry more completely, especially in cases of multi-mycotoxin contamination with the poorly absorbed fusarium mycotoxins in poultry feed.

Mycotoxin Solutions

  • Mycotoxin Detection

    We offer a range of analytical services to customers to assess the mycotoxin contamination of feed materials.

  • Mycofix® Plus 5.Z

    Absolute protection against the broadest range of mycotoxins. With ZENzyme® Faster and Better

  • FUMzyme® Silage

    FUMzyme® Silage is a unique additive sprayed onto corn (maize) at harvest that targets and detoxifies harmful fumonisins, so that the resulting silage is safe and fumonisin-free for livestock nutrition.

  • Mycofix®

    The Mycofix® portfolio of feed additives represents the most state-of-the-art solution for protecting animal health by deactivating mycotoxins that contaminate farm animal feed. Its safety and efficacy are proven by 7 EU authorizations for substances that deactivate mycotoxins.

  • FUMzyme® sol

    FUMzyme®, the only enzyme that effectively detoxifies fumonisins safely and irreversibly, is available for post-pellet and liquid application in animal feed. From the creators of Mycofix®. Naturally Ahead.

  • BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey

    The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey constitutes the longest running and most comprehensive data set on mycotoxin occurrence. The survey results provide insights on the incidence of the six major mycotoxins in the agricultural commodities used for livestock feed in order to identify the potential risk posed to livestock animal production.

  • Mycotoxin Contamination

    Our portfolio of tools helps to understand the potential risks of mycotoxins for animal species and location.

  • Mycotoxin Prediction

    The Mycotoxin Prediction Service delivers assessments of expected mycotoxin levels in the upcoming harvest of corn (maize) and wheat around the world.

Related Publications

MYCOTOXIN HUB

Latest Mycotoxin Updates

Read more about mycotoxins, get the latest mycotoxin survey reports and more.

MYCOTOXINS IN SWINE FEED

Mycotoxicosis in swine feed

Pigs are considered highly susceptible to mycotoxin contamination, with young animals and female breeders being the most sensitive groups. Mycotoxin can cause clinical symptoms or subclinical decreasing animal performance leading to great economic losses.

Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by molds and fungi on plants, on the field or during the storage. The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey provides regular update on the occurrence of mycotoxins in the raw commodities and finished feeds based on thousands of samples collected from across the globe.

Effects of mycotoxins in swine / mycotoxins symptoms in pigs

Mycotoxins target many organs and tissues and systems, liver, gut, kidneys, reproductive and immune system. The outcome is decreased performance, higher sensitivity to pathogens and reducing vaccination response. 

Symptoms vary considerably depending on which mycotoxin is responsible and can range from fertility and reproductive problems, reduced productivity, suppressed immunity and various pathological effects on organs and tissues.

Effects of Mycotoxins in Pigs

Zearalenone and pigs

Zearalenone (ZEN) can have a significant impact on reproductive performance, as pigs are among the most sensitive species to this mycotoxin. Negative effects are due to the interaction of ZEN and its metabolites with estrogen receptors, disturbing hormonal homeostasis. 

ZEN can cause abortions, light litters and stillbirths In addition, ZEN contaminated feed induces the swelling and reddening of vulva (hypoestrogenism), false heats and pseudopregnancy. Studies investigating the carry-over of ZEN into meat and other edible tissues showed that there is only limited tissue deposition of this mycotoxin.

Effects of zearalenone on swine fertility

Pigs are very sensitive to zearalenone (ZEN). ZEN increases the frequency of abortions and stillbirths in pregnant sows. In general, ZEN-contaminated pig feed induces:

  • swelling and reddening of the vulva 
  • false heats
  • false pregnancy

Effects of zearalenone on gilts

Due to their undeveloped endocrine system, gilts are even more sensitive to ZEN’s estrogenic effect. The results of ZEN ingestion are hyperaemia and vulva swelling (hyperestrogenism); uterus mass increase; ovarian follicle atresia and atrophic ovaries; vaginal or rectal prolapse. Hyperestrogenism would delay oestrus onset and would compromise fertility in subsequent reproductive life of gilt.

  • hyperaemia and vulva swelling (hyperestrogenism)
  • uterus mass increase
  • ovarian follicle atresia and atrophic ovaries
  • vaginal or rectal prolapse.

Group

Effect

Symptoms

Female swine

Reproductive

Affects reproduction cycle, conception, ovulation and implantation
Pseudo pregnancy, abortion, anoestrus, nymphomania
Embryonic death, inhibition of fetal development, reduced litter size, reduced birth weight
Enlargement of mammary glands
Swelling and reddening of vulva
Rectal and vaginal prolapse
Reddened teats

Pathological

Atrophy of ovaries
Uterus hypertrophy

Male swine

Reproductive 

Feminization
Enlargement of mammary glands
Impaired semen quality
Testicular atrophy
Swollen prepuce

Piglets/gilts 

Teratogenic 

Splay legs

Table 1. Effects of ZEN in swine 

Effects of aflatoxins on pigs

Aflatoxins can cause death when administered at high levels, but the greatest impact comes from reduced reproductive and performance capabilities, suppressed immune function and various pathological effects on organs and tissues.

Piglets fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets which were vaccinated with ovalbumin, showed decreased cell-mediated immunity and impaired lymphocyte activation. Thymus weight and histopathology, as well as viable alveolar macrophages were negatively influenced. In addition, cases of aflatoxin carry-over in swine have been reported with residues found in porcine liver and muscle tissues.

Effects of fumonisins on pigs

Numerous studies have confirmed the link between porcine pulmonary edema (PPE) and fumonisin intoxication. Severe lung edemas, liver and pancreas injuries, performance decreases and immune suppression were observed in exposed animals, even at low doses. Chronic exposure to fumonisin B1 (FB1), decreased the proliferation of undifferentiated porcine epithelial intestinal cells, altered the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and consequently facilitated the intrusion of pathogens into the body.

Fumonisins impair vaccination response, reduce the level of several specific antibodies and the period of vaccine protection. The carry-over of fumonisins in sow milk and pork meat (mainly liver and kidneys), may only occur after a high level of exposure over a longer period. On the other hand, the recently discovered hydrolyzed form of fumonisin B1 caused neither intestinal nor hepatic toxicity and did not impair the intestinal morphology of pigs.

Effects of ochratoxin A on pigs

Hepatotoxic effects, decreased performance parameters, nephrotoxicity and necrosis are the major toxic effects caused by Ochratoxin A. In addition, pigs showed a significant and linear reduction of daily gain with increasing doses of ingested ochratoxin A. This mycotoxin was observed to suppress cell-mediated immune response in pigs, resulting in reduced macrophage activity and weakened stimulation of lymphocytes. Furthermore, ochratoxin A tends to accumulate in kidneys, liver and muscle tissues, as well as in blood serum and, therefore, it represents a potential hazard in the human food chain.

Effects of deoxynivalenol on pigs

Pigs show a high sensitivity to deoxynivalenol (DON). The most frequently observed effects of deoxynivalenol consumption in swine are:

  • Vomiting
  • Growth reduction (anorexia and decreased nutritional efficiency)
  • Protein synthesis inhibition
  • Gut barrier disruption
  • Impaired immune function (enhancement and suppression)
  • Decreased reproductive performance

Deoxynivalenol inhibits intestinal nutrient absorption and alters intestinal cell and barrier functions. The highest residues of deoxynivalenol were detected in bile, followed by the kidneys and serum. Residues were detected in the liver and in muscle tissue as well. Concerning influence on immunity, trichothecenes in general reduce lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage activity and antibody response to certain vaccinations and influenced immunoglobulin levels.

Synergistic effects of mycotoxins in pigs

About 80% of swine diseases are related to the mismanagement of feed quality, reproduction, housing conditions and biosecurity, with only 20% due to viral, bacterial or parasitic pathogens. Toxicological interactions between mycotoxins enhance the toxic effects even at low levels.

Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum are known to produce several different fusariotoxins, including zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, which are known to interact synergistically in swine. In addition, the analysis of deoxynivalenol often indicates the co-occurrence of other fusariotoxins such as other trichothecenes (T-2 toxin, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol), zearalenone and fumonisins.

A summary on the synergistic and additive effects of mycotoxins in pigs is presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Synergistic and additive effects in pigs
AFB1 - Aflatoxin B1; FB1 - Fumonisin B1; DON - Deoxynivalenol; OTA - Ochratoxin A; ZEN - Zearalenone; FA - Fusaric acid; DAS - Diacetoxyscirpenol; CPA - Cyclopiazonic acid; MON - Moniliformin
Red line: Synergistic effect
Dashed line: Additive effect

Reproductive performance of sows exposed to Fusarium toxins

In a recent trial contracted by BIOMIN at the University of Berlin, the reproductive performance of sows was evaluated in the presence of DON and ZEN during a long-term (three-cycle) exposure to Fusarium toxins. Sows were allocated to one of three different groups (Table 2). 

Group Diet
Control


Feed not contaminated

Toxin


Feed contaminated with DON at high levels and ZEN at medium levels

Trial


Feed contaminated with DON at high levels and ZEN at medium levels and supplemented with Mycofix® Plus

Table 2. Summary of trial groups and diets

The presence of mycotoxins impaired different reproductive performance parameters as shown in Figure 2. The most commonly used index for assessing reproductive performance is the number of weaned piglets per sow per year. Farrowing rate and wean to estrus interval both affect this index. The presence of mycotoxins, especially ZEN, increased the returns to heat of inseminated sows and decreased the farrowing rate. 

The drop in feed intake affected the body condition score of the sows at weaning and milk yield. Underweight sows need more days to come into estrus after weaning. This decreases the number of farrowings per year, meaning there are fewer weaned piglets produced per sow per year. In addition, lower milk yields could compromise litter growth and weaning weights, resulting in lower weights at slaughter or more days in feed.

The presence of mycotoxins also compromised piglet quality (Figure 3). The percentage of underweight piglets (<1.2 kg) increased, implying that mycotoxins have a negative effect on embryo development and maternal nutrition. The negative effect on piglet quality accompanied with a depletion of milk yield may result in higher pre-weaning mortality and lower weaning weights.

However, a sound recovery was observed when Mycofix® Plus was applied.

Figure 2. Effects of ZEN and DON on reproductive indices. The yellow area represents the control group, presented as 100% performance. | Source: BIOMIN

Figure 3. Effect of ZEN and DON on reproductive indices. The yellow area represents the control group, presented as 100% performance. | Source: BIOMIN

Diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in pigs

Mycotoxicoses are caused by ingestion of mycotoxins, inhalation or contact with the skin. The effects of mycotoxins in swine are diverse, varying from immunosuppression to death in severe cases, depending on toxin-related (type of mycotoxin consumed, level and duration of intake), animal-related (animal species, sex, age, breed, general health, immune status, nutritional standing) and environmental (farm management, biosecurity, hygiene, temperature) factors. This fact often impedes correct attribution of problems caused by mycotoxins.

Much attention should be given to the so-called “conditioned” diseases—for example, Erysipelas, E.coliSalmonella, Influenza, Pasteurella and Streptococcus. These diseases are triggered by a stress stimulus. Mycotoxins have been shown to be a sufficient and necessary condition to set aflame such infections.

×

Ana Paula Bracarense of Universidade Estadual de Londrina in Brazil, explores the effects of mycotoxins on pigs' inflammatory response.

Mycotoxin risk management for pigs

When it comes to counteracting mycotoxins, pig industry tends to think of toxin binders or mycotoxin binders first. (Learn the truth about mycotoxin binders).

However, clay mineral binders are not an effective answer to all major mycotoxins. Especially not against Trichothecenes since their structures are not suitable for adsorbing by binders.

Biotransformation using microbes and enzymes is the most effective strategy. It provides reliable protection for pigs against Fusarium mycotoxins by biodegrading mycotoxins into non-toxic metabolites. The transformation is fast, specific and irreversible.

In addition to biotransformation, a bioprotection strategy is also important. Variety of feed additives is available that contains plant and algae extracts to provide a hepato-protective effect and to overcome the immune suppression caused by mycotoxins.

A combination of different strategies can counteract the negative effects of mycotoxins in pigs more completely, especially in cases of multi-mycotoxin contamination with the poorly absorbed Fusarium mycotoxins in swine feed.

Mycotoxin Solutions

  • Mycotoxin Detection

    We offer a range of analytical services to customers to assess the mycotoxin contamination of feed materials.

  • Mycofix® Plus 5.Z

    Absolute protection against the broadest range of mycotoxins. With ZENzyme® Faster and Better

  • Mycofix®

    The Mycofix® portfolio of feed additives represents the most state-of-the-art solution for protecting animal health by deactivating mycotoxins that contaminate farm animal feed. Its safety and efficacy are proven by 7 EU authorizations for substances that deactivate mycotoxins.

  • BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey

    The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey constitutes the longest running and most comprehensive data set on mycotoxin occurrence. The survey results provide insights on the incidence of the six major mycotoxins in the agricultural commodities used for livestock feed in order to identify the potential risk posed to livestock animal production.

  • Mycotoxin Contamination

    Our portfolio of tools helps to understand the potential risks of mycotoxins for animal species and location.

  • Mycotoxin Prediction

    The Mycotoxin Prediction Service delivers assessments of expected mycotoxin levels in the upcoming harvest of corn (maize) and wheat around the world.

  • ROVIMIX® A1000

    ROVIMIX® A1000, your reliable vitamin A source We all know vitamins are essential for the health of our farm animals, but do you also know that of all vitamins, vitamin A may well be the most challenging to produce?

  • ROVIMIX® E50

    ROVIMIX® E50 is a superior formulation of vitamin E, which strengthens the immune system and increases performance in poultry, swine and dairy cows.

  • FUMzyme® sol

    FUMzyme®, the only enzyme that effectively detoxifies fumonisins safely and irreversibly, is available for post-pellet and liquid application in animal feed. From the creators of Mycofix®. Naturally Ahead.

  • RONOZYME® WX2,000

    RONOZYME® WX2,000 degrades xylans, the major antinutritional components in cereals grains, improving the release of entrapped energy and nutrients, reducing feed costs.

  • RONOZYME® VP

    RONOZYME® VP is a multi-component enzymes product which degrade the complex cell-wall NPS structures, improving the release of entrapped energy and nutrients, reducing feed costs.

  • RONOZYME® MultiGrain

    RONOZYME® MultiGrain is a multi-enzymes product which activities reduce intestinal viscosity while releasing entrapped energy and nutrients, reducing feed costs.

  • RONOZYME® A

    Our solution to improving starch utilization in corn- and sorghum-based diets.

  • RONOZYME® HiPhos

    RONOZYME® HiPhos takes feed phytase to the next level. Far less inorganic phosphorous needs to be added to the diet, resulting in substantial savings on feed costs.

  • PureGro™

    Reducing the odor of swine units is sure to make everyone happier – the animals, the workers and even the neighbors! We have developed an effective way to do this.

  • RONOZYME® ProAct

    RONOZYME® ProAct is DSM best-in-class feed protease which increases protein digestion across a range of feed ingredients, thereby reducing feed costs. RONOZYME® ProAct optimizes amino acids digestion, reduces costs, mitigates effects of feed protein variability, reduces adverse effects of anti-nutritional factors as well as improves Gastrointestinal Functionality.

  • OVN™

    With Optimum Vitamin Nutrition (OVN™), animals are healthier and produce more – meaning better returns for producers. This is why we are serious about vitamins.

  • Hy-D®

    Hy-D® is the fast track vitamin D3 source, for a strong skeleton and better performance.

  • RONOZYME® HiStarch

    RONOZYME® HiStarch contains a unique single alpha-amylase to unlock the energy in grain-based poultry and piglets feeds by improving starch digestion, reducing feed costs.

  • CRINA®

    Our specific blends of essential oil components have shown to help deliver a better balance of gut microflora.

  • Biotronic®

    The Biotronic® line of state-of-the-art enhanced acidifiers support modern farm animals against Gram-negative bacteria.

  • Biomin® CleanGrain Plus

    Biomin® CleanGrain Plus is a unique blend of organic acids and salts designed to protect against spoilage of grains and by-products caused by molds, yeast and bacteria.

  • Digestarom® DC Power

    Digestarom® DC Power is a next generation phytogenic feed additive mixed into premixes, mineral feed or finished feed in order to support farm animal feed intake, support digestion and feed conversion. The Feed Converter.

  • Digestarom®

    Digestarom® line of phytogenics contain unique blends of herbs and spices, essential oils and other plant extracts to improve palatability and acceptance of feed, support digestion and overall performance of farm animals.

  • CYLACTIN®

    Increase the proportion of ‘good’ bacteria, and you have a better performing gut.

MYCOTOXINS IN CATTLE FEED

Mycotoxins in ruminants

Mycotoxins are found in almost every agricultural commodity worldwide. Whether these toxins have been produced by fungi infecting crops in the field or by fungi contaminating feed in storage, they pose a challenge to livestock.  

A wide array of grains and forages can be contaminated with mycotoxins. To date, more than 700 mycotoxins have been identified. The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey provides a regular update on the occurrence of mycotoxins in raw commodities and finished feed based on thousands of samples collected from across the globe.  

Effects and symptoms of mycotoxins in cattle

Ruminants have some capacity to protect themselves against the harmful effects of mycotoxins due to detoxifying action of certain ruminal microorganisms. However, modern dairy cows have a much faster passage rate of feed through the rumen, leaving less time for microorganisms to detoxify. This, combined with higher feed intake means that our cows’ natural defences cannot protect them as well as often assumed. Further, a cow’s beneficial ruminal microbiota can be impaired by some mycotoxins as well as under challenging metabolic conditions e.g. sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA).  

Silage mycotoxins

Ruminants can also face a challenge from various silage mold mycotoxins. These have been shown to reduce rumen function, to cause scours and to reduce milk production as well as to provoke other specific symptoms according to the type of mycotoxin. 

Effects of mycotoxins in cattle and other ruminants

Mycotoxins symptoms in cattle

The harmful effects of mycotoxins do not begin with animal metabolism but with the ruminal microflora which affects the efficiency and productivity of ruminal fermentations. In fact, clinical symptoms may not manifest in most practical situations, but performance will be subsequently compromised, resulting in decreased yield, poor reproduction and increased lameness or mastitis.  

Mycotoxin Recommended risk threshold (ppb) Effects
 Aflatoxin 2
  • Carry over in milk (Aflatoxin M1)
  • Carcinogenicity of the liver
  • Increased liver and kidney weight and lesions
  • Weight loss and reduced weight gain (cattle)
  • Impaired rumen function
  • Impaired udder health, increased somatic cell count, lower milk production
  • Drop in reproductive efficiency
  • Decreased resistance to environmental and microbial stressors; increased susceptibility to diseases
  • Hematological alterations
  • Immune suppression
 Zearalenone 100
  • Infertility, decreased conception rates
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Abortions
  • Unsynchronized ovarian cycle
  • Teat enlargement
  • Enlargement of mammary glands in virgin heifers
  • Reproductive tract infections
  • Low testicular development, low sperm production
  • Vaginitis
 Deoxynivalenol 300
  • Impaired rumen function
  • Impaired feed intake
  • Diarrhea
  • Metabolic disorders, mastitis, metritis
  • Lameness
  • Decreased body weight
  • Decreased milk production
 T-2 toxin 100
  • Loss of appetite
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Lowered milk production
  • Immune modulation
  • Low semen quality
  • Hemorrhages
 Fumonisins 2000
  • Decreased milk production
  • Increased levels of liver enzymes, liver and kidney lesions
 Ochratoxin A 80
  • Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin and ruminants are much less sensitive to ochratoxin A compared to non-ruminants
  • Decreased performance

Table 1. Major mycotoxins and the dangers for cows.

Main consequences of mycotoxins in dairy cows in relation to mammary health and milk production

Reduced milk production results from several factors, including a decrease in intake or feed refusal that is commonly reported with certain mycotoxins such as DON. Mycotoxins can alter rumen function by changing the microbial populations or the breakdown of nutrients, consequently reducing nutrient absorption and impairing metabolism which ultimately leads to reduced availability of the precursors needed for milk synthesis.

Potential mammary-related negative effects of mycotoxins in dairy cows:

  1. Reduced milk production
  2. Toxic contaminants in milk, especially Aflatoxin M1
  3. Increased risk of mastitis
  4. Altered milk composition

Some of the most important mycotoxin groups for ruminants are: 

  • Aflatoxins  
  • Tricothecenes, including well-known mycotoxins such as DON (deoxynivalenol or vomitoxin) 
  • Zearalenone 
  • Ergot alkaloids 
  • Ochratoxins

Other mycotoxins are able to have a less obvious, but still economically significant impact on the performance of dairy cows. 

Aflatoxin carryover to milk and milk products

Because of the milk safety problem of aflatoxin M1, aflatoxins receive perhaps the most attention of all mycotoxins in dairy production. Aflatoxins are partially degraded in the rumen and the remainder biologically converted in the liver to Aflatoxin M1 which is still bioavailable, toxic and unfortunately can be carried over into the milk produced.  

Most countries established strict limits for aflatoxins in milk, but it is important to note that also other mycotoxins can negatively affect profitability and animal health and welfare.

Deoxynivalenol

One of the most commonly occurring mycotoxins in livestock feeds is deoxynivalenol (DON), better known as ‘vomitoxin’. The name ‘vomitoxin’ originates from the toxin causing vomiting in swine. Deoxynivalenol is a member of the trichothecene family of mycotoxins, specifically Type B trichothecenes. Several species of Fusarium molds are capable of producing trichothecenes. Additionally, some Fusarium mold species can produce the mycotoxins zearalenone and fumonisins. It is not uncommon to detect more than one toxin in a feed sample since molds can produce more than one type of mycotoxin and since more than one mold can infect a plant.

The presence of DON in the feed has been correlated with significantly reduced milk production (see Figure 1). DON (a type B trichothecene) has also been shown to affect rumen microbial processes such as reducing the availability of nitrogen (microbial N). Effects can be seen even if there is degradation of DON over time in the rumen.  

In dairy cows, the damage is more likely to be subclinical or indirect such as increased permeability of the intestinal wall (lowering the defence against pathogens and reducing nutrient uptake), reduced productivity, higher somatic cell count issues, and risk of mastitis and metritis. Calves can struggle with scours and respiratory diseases due to the effects of trichothecenes on the immune system. 

Deoxynivalenol inhibits protein and nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) synthesis. The negative effects of DON are mainly seen in the gastrointestinal tract and immune system, but the toxin can cause lesions and necrosis of the skin and mucosa as well. The cells lining the intestines are continuously being renewed and are especially sensitive to the effects of DON.  

The intestinal epithelium serves two main purposes: 1) to absorb nutrients and 2) to act as a barrier to prevent harmful substances from entering the bloodstream. Both of these functions can be disrupted by DON, leading to reduced nutrient uptake and increased passage of toxins and pathogens into circulation. This can limit animal growth or production capacity as the required nutrients are not absorbed and utilized.  

Additionally, other organs may be exposed to pathogens or toxins which enter the bloodstream, increasing the possibility for disease. Disruption of the intestinal mucosa can also lead to diarrhea. A large portion of the immune system is located in the gastrointestinal tract. Immune function can be impaired by disruption of the gut mucosa.  

DON can impair production of the white blood cells, which help fight infection. Deoxynivalenol can also weaken the immune system by negatively impacting cytokine and antibody production. The animal’s natural immune response to vaccinations may also be reduced, leaving them susceptible to disease despite vaccination. All of these factors can lead to immune dysfunction in cattle, increasing vulnerability to infections. 

Figure 1. Predicted reduction in milk loss from a US survey of dairy farms (Whitlow et al. 1994).

Figure 2. Action of the epoxidase enzyme in Mycofix® on trichothecenes such as DON (which is transformed into non-toxic DOM-1). This transformation takes place rapidly helping protect the rumen and the microorganisms. 

Ochratoxin A

There can be an almost complete detoxification of ochratoxin A (OTA, an occasional storage mycotoxin), though a portion of OTA is known to be able to escape detoxification through rumen bypass. Up to 10% of the OTA challenge has been reported to pass unchanged through the goat rumen (and sheep are likely to be similar). This happens to a lesser extent in cows since they have a larger rumen with a longer transit time. With high feed intake and stress factors, however, more rumen bypass can occur reducing mycotoxin breakdown. 

Zearalenone and reproduction issues

Ruminants are susceptible to the estrogenic effects provoked by zearalenone (ZEN) and related compounds. The molecule fits to the oestrogen receptors triggering the wrong hormonal responses and upsetting the reproductive system and disrupting reproductive performance. In the rumen, ZEN is largely biologically converted to alpha-zearalenol (α-ZOL), which is a much more potent form that fits more easily to the oestrogen receptors than ZEN itself. ZEN is also known to increase (worsen) the effect of DON on the gut wall. 

Ergot alkaloids

Ruminants have a well-known susceptibility to the effects of ergot alkaloids. Ergots can be formed by fungi growing on cereals or by endophyte fungi within tall fescue grass. One of their main effects is vasoconstriction (restricting blood flow) which has an impact on hoof health, heat stress, mastitis and reproduction. 

Acidosis impacts mycotoxin degradation

A well-known problem within ruminants is subclinical or acute acidosis (SARA/ARA). This syndrome of low rumen pH often occurs in high-producing dairy farms, especially when diets are grain-rich or stress situations impair the ruminal flora and lead to dysbiosis.  

It is assumed that during acidosis the numbers of protozoa decline and as one of the most important mycotoxin-degrading agents, this leads to a decreased degradation and therefore, higher levels of mycotoxins can pass to the intestine and exert toxic effects. 

Mycotoxin risk management in cattle

Reducing animal exposure to mycotoxins in feed is key. Identifying contamination can help to reduce exposure.  

Robust mycotoxin risk management comprises three steps:  

  • Detection  
  • Prevention  
  • Mitigation  

Regular analysis of feed components and silage can help to uncover potential threats to animals. A highly contaminated sample does not mean the entire crop is bad and a ‘clean’ sample does not guarantee that all of the feed is mycotoxin-free. 

Good silage management is essential to avoid further growth of molds and thereby prevent the production of mycotoxins. Regular application of a mycotoxin binder and of deactivators is advisable. A proper mycotoxin risk management is essential to avoid unpredictable losses and maintain a high producing dairy herd. 

Mycotoxin Solutions

  • Biomin® BioStabil

    Biomin® BioStabil is a formulation of strategically selected Lactic Acid Bacteria for optimal haylage, silage and forage preservation. Biomin® BioStabil preserves the energy in your silage.

  • Mycotoxin Detection

    We offer a range of analytical services to customers to assess the mycotoxin contamination of feed materials.

  • Mycofix® Plus 5.Z

    Absolute protection against the broadest range of mycotoxins. With ZENzyme® Faster and Better

  • Mycofix®

    The Mycofix® portfolio of feed additives represents the most state-of-the-art solution for protecting animal health by deactivating mycotoxins that contaminate farm animal feed. Its safety and efficacy are proven by 7 EU authorizations for substances that deactivate mycotoxins.

  • Mycotoxin Contamination

    Our portfolio of tools helps to understand the potential risks of mycotoxins for animal species and location.

  • Mycotoxin Prediction

    The Mycotoxin Prediction Service delivers assessments of expected mycotoxin levels in the upcoming harvest of corn (maize) and wheat around the world.

  • ROVIMIX® A1000

    ROVIMIX® A1000, your reliable vitamin A source We all know vitamins are essential for the health of our farm animals, but do you also know that of all vitamins, vitamin A may well be the most challenging to produce?

  • FUMzyme® Silage

    FUMzyme® Silage is a unique additive sprayed onto corn (maize) at harvest that targets and detoxifies harmful fumonisins, so that the resulting silage is safe and fumonisin-free for livestock nutrition.

  • FUMzyme® sol

    FUMzyme®, the only enzyme that effectively detoxifies fumonisins safely and irreversibly, is available for post-pellet and liquid application in animal feed. From the creators of Mycofix®. Naturally Ahead.

  • OVN™

    With Optimum Vitamin Nutrition (OVN™), animals are healthier and produce more – meaning better returns for producers. This is why we are serious about vitamins.

  • Levabon® Rumen E

    Levabon® Rumen E is an innovative brewers yeast cattle feed supplement for dairy and beef animals including calves. It delivers an enhanced prebiotic effect compared to conventional yeasts for better productivity.

  • BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey

    The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey constitutes the longest running and most comprehensive data set on mycotoxin occurrence. The survey results provide insights on the incidence of the six major mycotoxins in the agricultural commodities used for livestock feed in order to identify the potential risk posed to livestock animal production.

  • Hy-D®

    Hy-D® is the fast track vitamin D3 source, for a strong skeleton and better performance.

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    ROVIMIX® E50 is a superior formulation of vitamin E, which strengthens the immune system and increases performance in poultry, swine and dairy cows.

  • ROVIMIX® Biotin

    ROVIMIX® Biotin delivers improved hoof strength and milk production in dairy cows.

  • ROVIMIX® ß-Carotene

    β-Carotene is an essential nutrient for all farmed stock. As it is only found in plants and cannot be synthesized by livestock, animals’ requirements of this nutrient must be fulfilled by their diet.

  • CRINA®

    Our specific blends of essential oil components have shown to help deliver a better balance of gut microflora.

  • RONOZYME® RumiStar™

    The first feed enzyme that works in dairy cows, which is optimizing corn starch and fiber degradation in the rumen.

  • CYLACTIN®

    Increase the proportion of ‘good’ bacteria, and you have a better performing gut.

  • Biotronic®

    The Biotronic® line of state-of-the-art enhanced acidifiers support modern farm animals against Gram-negative bacteria.

  • Digestarom®

    Digestarom® line of phytogenics contain unique blends of herbs and spices, essential oils and other plant extracts to improve palatability and acceptance of feed, support digestion and overall performance of farm animals.

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MYCOTOXICOSIS IN AQUA FEED

Mycotoxin in aqua feed

A hidden threat to fish and shrimp farming

The occurrence of mycotoxins in aquatic feeds and their effects on target species are topics that continue to gain attention due to the general trend of replacing expensive animal protein sources such as fishmeal with cheaper plant-derived proteins. Mycotoxin intoxication occurs when fish and shrimp consume mycotoxin-contaminated feedstuffs.

The chemical and thermal stability of mycotoxins renders these molecules unsusceptible to damage during common feed manufacturing procedures like extrusion. 

Symptoms in aquatic species

Many scientific publications have reported on the effects of mycotoxins in fish and shrimp at different contamination levels, enabling a better understanding of mycotoxin-related ailments. However, there are still only few validated clinical symptoms for mycotoxin exposure in fish and shrimps.  

The majority of the described effects of mycotoxins in fish and shrimp are general symptoms and could be attributed to diverse pathologies or challenges, for example, anti-nutritional factors or lectins in the diet. Aflatoxins and fumonisins are two notable exceptions: 

  • Aflatoxin ingestion (aflatoxicosis) causes a yellowing of the body surface  
  • Ingestion of fumonisins increases the sphinganine to sphingosine ratio   

The most frequently reported clinical manifestations of mycotoxin ingestion are:

 1)  a reduction in growth performance and 
 2) alteration of hematological parameters.  

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WNF 2016 Aquaculture Breakouts: 03 Mycotoxins in Aquaculture: Occurrence and Significance

Figure 1. Interacting factors influencing the effects of mycotoxins in fish and shrimps

Overall, the effects of mycotoxins in aquatic species depend on toxin-, animal- and environment-related factors, such as: 

  • Type of mycotoxin(s) 
  • Concentration level  
  • Duration of intake  
  • Animal species
  • Animal sex  
  • Animal age 
  • Animal health and immune status 
  • Farm management 
  • Biosecurity 
  • Hygiene 
  • Temperature  

Effects of mycotoxins in fish

Figure 2. Effects of mycotoxins in fish

Aflatoxins 

Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and their concentration is strictly regulated in several markets worldwide. Several aquatic species are sensitive to aflatoxins. In the case of sea bream (Sparus aurata), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) shows negative effects on the hepatocytes already after 24 of exposure.  

The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and weight gain of Beluga (Huso huso) are negatively affected by concentrations of AFB1 ranging from 20 to 100 ppb. Other symptoms such as liver necrosis can be observed as well. Similar effects might occur in other species such as red drum (Sciaenops occellatus) and rohu (Labeo rohita). 

In tilapia, AFB1 affects the growth rate and FCR at concentrations ranging from 100 to 2500 ppb, however some studies showed how already 50 ppb were enough to cause liver necrosis.

Deoxynivalenol 

Some aquatic species are sensitive to deoxynivalenol (DON), especially salmonids such as rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Both species show sensitivity at low levels (300-500 ppb). The main symptoms observed in several studies were significant decreases in: 

  • Growth  
  • Feed intake  
  • Feed efficiency 
  • Protein  
  • Energy utilization  
Zearalenone 

Studies on the effects of zearalenone (ZEN) in farm animals have mainly focused on dysfunction or structural disorders of the reproductive tract. Several studies have confirmed that ZEN modulates estrogen receptor-dependent gene expression in aquatic species, thus affecting the reproduction of fish.  

This has been shown in zebrafish (Danio rerio), where the exposure to ZEN reduced spawning frequency, or changed the relative fecundity from one generation to the next. Together with affecting reproduction, ZEN was reported to show genotoxic effects such as defects in heart and eye development and upward curvature of the body axis of zebrafish.  

Fumonisins 

In aquaculture species, fumonisin B1 (FB1) has been generally associated with reduced growth rate, feed consumption and feed efficiency ratio, as well as impaired sphingolipid metabolism. In rainbow trout, FB1 has been shown to induce changes in the liver’s sphingolipid metabolism at levels lower than 100 ppb and was able to induce liver cancer in 1-month-old trout.  

According to the literature, ingestion of FB1 by carp resulted in lesions in liver and pancreas already at concentrations as low as 500 ppb. Performance parameters such as average weight gain and body weight dropped after dietary administration of low doses of FB1. FB1 affected the performance of Nile tilapia as well. Reduced average weight gain and increased Sa/So ratio have been reported in the literature. 

Ochratoxins 

Studies on the toxicity of ochratoxin A (OTA) in aquatic animals are very scarce. The few available studies reported effects such as severe degeneration and necrosis of kidney and liver leading to inferior weight gain, poorer FCR, lower survival rates and hematocrit levels. OTA is also immunosuppressive and one study conducted on catfish showed how animals exposed to this mycotoxin become more susceptible to pathogenic infections.  

Mycotoxins in shrimp

Figure 3. Effects of mycotoxins in shrimp

Aflatoxins 

Impact of mycotoxins in shrimp are less investigated than for fish. However, there is some evidence in the literature. Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) was reported to be susceptible to levels of AFB1 as low as 20 ppb. The main effects are reduction on weight gain up to 50% compared to the control group.  

In Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposure to AFB1 is usually associated with increased mortality, damages to hepatopancreas, immune suppression and ultimately, drop in performance parameters.   

Deoxynivalenol 

Regarding the impact of DON on shrimp, those are mostly related to performance, where concentrations as little as 200 ppb have been associated with reduced body weight and/or growth rate. 

Zearalenone 

The impact of ZEN has been investigated on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius). The observed effects were abnormalities in the development of the hepatopancreas, with consequences for the immune system and growth performance.  

Fumonisins 

The effects of FUM in shrimp have not been extensively investigated. However, there is some evidence suggesting that low doses of these mycotoxins are capable of affecting the texture of the flesh, with repercussions on the quality of the product during ice storage.  

Ochratoxins 

OTA is probably the least investigated mycotoxin in shrimp. The few available studies reported atrophy, severe necrosis and degeneration of the hepatopancreas and disruption of the hematopietic tissue and lymphoid organs after oral administration of OTA.  

Synergistic effects of mycotoxins in aquatic species 

There are a limited number of studies where the issue of synergistic interactions between mycotoxins is addressed. FB1 was observed to produce synergistic effects with AFB1 in trout, as it was able to promote the onset of aflatoxin-initiated liver tumor. The combined effects of AFB1 and T-2 toxin were studied in Gambusia affinis.  

Effects of AFB1 and deoxynivalenol were studied on carp (Cyprinius carpio) and it was shown that the negative effects of the two mycotoxins taken together were greater than their effects individually.  

Figure 4. Synergistic interaction between mycotoxins in aquatic species

Mycotoxin occurrence in aquafeeds

The inclusion of plant materials contaminated with mycotoxins in compound aquafeeds will increase the risk of mycotoxin contamination in aquaculture feeds. Gonçalves et al., (2016) compared the mycotoxin occurrence levels from 41 samples of finish aquaculture feed, both shrimp and fish, in Asia and Europe, with the available literature on fish/shrimp mycotoxicoses.  

The authors found that levels found for the samples analyzed during 2014 were within the sensitivity level of several important species in aquaculture. Gonçalves et al. (2016) highlighted the fact that the mycotoxins levels found can compromise aquaculture species, even just taking into account single mycotoxins levels.  

According to Gonçalves et al. (2016) the number of species affected by mycotoxins would be even higher than stated in the study due to the lack of research in some important species and the existence of mycotoxins synergisms not taken into account on that study.  

Mycotoxin occurrence in aquafeeds

Mycotoxin Solutions

  • AquaStar®

    AquaStar® comprises the most complete range of aquaculture probiotics for hatchery, feed mill and farms to improve growth and enhance pond and water quality.

  • ROVIMIX® A1000

    ROVIMIX® A1000, your reliable vitamin A source We all know vitamins are essential for the health of our farm animals, but do you also know that of all vitamins, vitamin A may well be the most challenging to produce?

  • Mycotoxin Detection

    We offer a range of analytical services to customers to assess the mycotoxin contamination of feed materials.

  • Mycofix® Plus 5.Z

    Absolute protection against the broadest range of mycotoxins. With ZENzyme® Faster and Better

  • Mycofix®

    The Mycofix® portfolio of feed additives represents the most state-of-the-art solution for protecting animal health by deactivating mycotoxins that contaminate farm animal feed. Its safety and efficacy are proven by 7 EU authorizations for substances that deactivate mycotoxins.

  • BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey

    The BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey constitutes the longest running and most comprehensive data set on mycotoxin occurrence. The survey results provide insights on the incidence of the six major mycotoxins in the agricultural commodities used for livestock feed in order to identify the potential risk posed to livestock animal production.

  • Mycotoxin Contamination

    Our portfolio of tools helps to understand the potential risks of mycotoxins for animal species and location.

  • Mycotoxin Prediction

    The Mycotoxin Prediction Service delivers assessments of expected mycotoxin levels in the upcoming harvest of corn (maize) and wheat around the world.

  • ROVIMAX®

    Fish need a robust immune system to stay healthy. Rovimax is a high quality feed additive containing nucleotides to booster and strengthen the immune system- for best performance in aqua cultured species and better returns for producers.

  • CAROPHYLL®

    We offer additives that allow consistent delivery of precisely-pigmented egg yolks, poultry skin and fish.

  • FUMzyme® sol

    FUMzyme®, the only enzyme that effectively detoxifies fumonisins safely and irreversibly, is available for post-pellet and liquid application in animal feed. From the creators of Mycofix®. Naturally Ahead.

  • Digital SalmoFan™

    DSM adds an innovative technology in its toolbox for color measurement. The digital SalmoFan™ is a portable and user-friendly color sensor device developed for the salmon industry for precise digital color measurement of salmon fillets. The digital SalmoFan™ is limited edition and currently not available for sale. However, if you are interested, please fill in the contact form and a DSM sales representative will reach out to you.

  • DHAgold™

    With DHAgold™ we bring you a sustainable source of DHA to enrich poultry, swine and aqua.

  • Levabon® Aquagrow E

    The innovative immune modulator for modern aquaculture, containing highly bioactive compounds in combination with autolysis technology to maintain gut health and intestinal integrity in aqua-cultured species.

  • Biotronic®

    The Biotronic® line of state-of-the-art enhanced acidifiers support modern farm animals against Gram-negative bacteria.

  • SalmoFan™

    The SalmoFan™ color measurement scale by DSM is recognized as the industry standard across the world for measuring salmon fillet color. We have developed a range of color measurement tools adapted to the needs of the industry from feed producers to retailers.

  • ShrimpFan™

    Color is an important quality criteria for shrimp. Higher color more uniform color of cooked shrimp deliver premium products to the consumer. Astaxanthin is the most abundant pigment in most crustaceans, it is not produced by de novo synthesis and shrimp must acquire astaxanthin through their diet. Shrimp can bio-convert canthaxanthin and beta-carotene to astaxanthin, but this process is energy demanding since both canthaxanthin and beta-carotene are less efficient pigments in shrimp. Pigments are required for optimum nutrition of shrimp (anti-oxidant function, pigmentation and colour, photoprotection, pro-vitamin A). The ShrimpFan™ color measurement scale by DSM is the new industry tool for measuring shrimp color. At DSM, we have developed a range of color measurement tools adapted to the needs of the industry from feed producers to retailers. The ShrimpFan™ offers a simple, accurate and consistent mean of measuring the color of shrimp.

  • OVN™

    With Optimum Vitamin Nutrition (OVN™), animals are healthier and produce more – meaning better returns for producers. This is why we are serious about vitamins.

  • Digestarom®

    Digestarom® line of phytogenics contain unique blends of herbs and spices, essential oils and other plant extracts to improve palatability and acceptance of feed, support digestion and overall performance of farm animals.

  • CYLACTIN®

    Increase the proportion of ‘good’ bacteria, and you have a better performing gut.

Related Publications

MYCOTOXIN HUB

Latest Mycotoxin Updates

Read more about mycotoxins, get the latest mycotoxin survey reports and more.

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